Kes oli Sir Alan Cobham? Mees, kes tõi massidesse lennunduse

Kes oli Sir Alan Cobham? Mees, kes tõi massidesse lennunduse


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Alan John Cobham sündis 6. mail 1894 Camberwellis. Hiljem õppis ta Wilsoni gümnaasiumis, kuid ei suutnud eristada ühtegi ainet, välja arvatud geograafia. Kuid ta ei oleks saanud valida paremat teemat, kus silma paista, sest see oli tema tulevase karjääri alus.

Pärast vabatahtlikku tööd sõjaväeteenistuses augustis 1914 sattus ta erakordsetesse olukordadesse, mis viisid kiiresti Prantsusmaale saatmiseni. Olles väitnud, et tal on põllumajanduskogemus, oli ta armee veterinaarkorpusega seotud ja järgneva kolme aasta jooksul tõusis ta seersandiks, kes juhtis umbes 1500 hobust erinevates lagunemise etappides.

Nick Lloyd, PhD, FRHistS, on Londoni King's College'i sõjaväe- ja keiserliku ajaloo lugeja, kes asub Wiltshire'is Shrivenhamis asuvas Joint Services Command & Staff College'is. Tema uus raamat Passchendaele: uus ajalugu on nüüd väljas.

Kuulake kohe

Taevasse viimine

Sõja edenedes suurendas sõltuvus mehhaniseeritud transpordiliikidest Cobhami, et hobuste kasutamine väheneb oluliselt. Nähes pidevalt suurenevat õhusõidukite arvu pea kohal, vallandas ka tema kujutlusvõime ja ta otsustas hakata lenduriks.

Lühikese puhkuseperioodi jooksul usaldas ta oma ambitsioonid oma emale, kes korraldas kohe kohtumise härra Grosega, kõrgetasemelise riigiteenistujaga, kes juhtus elama kõrvalmajas.

Ta kutsus Cobhami järgmisel päeval sõjaametisse intervjuule, kus tal paluti selgitada ohvitseritäiele ruumile, miks ta soovib üle minna kuninglikku lennukorpust. Pärast seda kiitis Grose täielikult noormehe sihikindla taotluse heaks ja palus eriarvamusi avaldamata oma kolleegidel sama teha.

Nüüd seisis Cobhami ees kadestamisväärne ülesanne selgitada oma tegevust raevunud polkovnikule, kes nägi oma autoriteeti õõnestavat ja ütles talle, et ta on rügemendile häbiplekk ja et ta peaks kohe silma alt ära minema.

Kadett Cobham

2. leitnant Alan Cobham Royal Flying Corps.

Olles selle verbaalse tormi üle elanud, teatas ta Hastingsi kuninglikule lendavate kadettide depoole, et astuda vastu teistsugusele lahingule.

Esiteks olid juhendavad töötajad teadmatuses, kuidas käituda seersandiga, kes kandis ka kolme varrukatäit varrukal, kuid kes vajasid „tsiviiltänavalt” uute värvatute kõrval tervitus- ja puurimisõpet.

Teiseks olid tema klassikaaslased eranditult kas ülikoolist või riigikoolist ja seetõttu palju paremini haritud. Siiski õppis ta kiiresti ja sai oma uute sõprade väikese abiga kursuse mõistliku krediidiga üle.

Pärast sõda

Cobham, kes oli lõpetanud sõja lendava instruktorina, ühines meeleheitlikult tööd otsides umbes kahekümne kahe tuhande piloodiga. Tsiviillennundus oli lapsekingades ja töökohti oli vähe.

Vähesed aga leidsid, et seiklushimulisemad avalikkuselennud, kes soovivad lennata, maksaksid hea meelega lühikese kohaliku hüppe eest. Cobham koos kahe teise sõjaveterani Fredi ja Jack Holmesiga koondasid oma säästud ja ostsid sõjaülejäägi Avro 504k, et moodustada Berkshire'i lennundusfirma, mis oleks üks esimesi õhusõidurõivaid.

Nende varajane edu 1919. aastal tuhmus peagi, kuid Cobham sai pärast Aerofilms Ltd fotograafipilti ja sai lõpuks de Havillandi lennukiteenuste peapiloodiks.

Lisaks tšarterlendudele koos de Havillandiga sooritas Cobham mitmeid pikamaareiside lende Indiasse, Birmasse, Lõuna-Aafrikasse ja Austraaliasse, mis tõi talle rahvusvahelise kuulsuse. Pärast maandumist Thamesile, kui antipoodidest naasis hinnanguliselt miljon vaatamisväärsust, sai ta väljateenitud rüütelkonna.

Cobhami maandumine Thamesil.

Lennunduse toomine massidesse

Pärast oma ettevõtte Alan Cobham Aviation asutamist alustas Cobham ristisõda, et muuta valitsus ja laiem avalikkus õhuliseks.

Selle raames tegi ta ringreisi kümneistmelise reisilennukiga üle riigi, külastades 110 linna ja tehes 5000 kohalikku lendu, mis vedasid 50 000 reisijat, sealhulgas 10 000 kooliõpilast. Kõik kahekümne ühe nädala jooksul.

Ta osutus oma ajast ees, sest kuigi tema ekskursiooni eesmärk oli veenda kohalikke linnapeasid ja ametivõime selles, et on saabunud aeg kohalike lennujaamade ehitamiseks, välja arvatud mõned märkimisväärsed erandid, nt Liverpool, Bournemouth ja Leeds/Bradford. tegutseda lennuvälja konsultandina langes peamiselt kurtidele kõrvadele.

Pärast suhteliselt vaikset kahekümnendate aastate perioodi sai avalikkuse huvi ringreiside õhusaadete vastu hoogu Cobhami riikliku lennupäeva näidikutega, mis juhtisid ajavahemikku 1932–1935.

Rahvusliku lennupäeva väljapaneku plakat.

Kuigi talle ei meeldinud mõiste „Lendav tsirkus”, kuna sellel puudus professionaalne puudutus, kasutasid seda pealkirja alati avalikkus ja ajakirjandus ning tõepoolest Teise maailmasõja vabatahtlikud lennumeeskonnad, kui küsiti, kas nad on kunagi varem lennanud 75% vastas "Jah-Cobhami lendava tsirkusega."

Colin Cruddas töötas aastaid rahvusvahelise lennundusettevõtte Cobham Plc ametliku arhivaarina ja on ainulaadse kvalifikatsiooniga kirjutada lennundusajaloo ühe suurima teerajaja lõplik elulugu. Tema uus raamat „Sir Alan Cobham: lendav legend, kes tõi lennunduse massidesse” ilmus 22. oktoobril 2018 kirjastuse Pen and Sword all.


Audio ja video: klassikaline loeng - Barnstorming koos Cobhamiga, autor Sir Michael Knight FRAeS

Cobhami lendav tsirkus tõi ajavahemikus 1932–1935 lennunduse põnevust ja glamuuri, väljakutseid ja entusiasmi, põnevust ja lekkeid sõna otseses mõttes miljonitele inimestele kogu Suurbritannias ja osades impeeriumis. Sir Michael Knight uurib kolme ja poole aasta pikkuseid lendlehti, vigurlendu, tiiba kõndimine, langevarju väljapanekud, tagurpidi lendamine ja rõõmsõidud, millega Sir Alan Cobham müüs lendamispotentsiaali nii väikestele kui vanadele ja räägib meile palju hämmastavaid lugusid.

1997. aasta Handley Page loeng toimus 20. veebruaril 1997, podcasti toimetas Eur Ing Mike Stanberry FRAeS ja see digiteeriti tänu Royal Aeronautical Society Foundationi toetusele.

Riiklik lennundusraamatukogu
1. veebruar 2021

Seotud

Heli: arhiivist - Lord Brabazon of Tara

Taara isand Brabazon, esimene mees, kellel oli Royal Aero Clubi pilootide luba, ja üks esimesi 50 aastat mootorlennu suurepäraseid tegelasi meenutab.

Audio ja video: klassikaline loengusari - Sir Peter Masefieldi Brabazoni komiteed

Vickersi vikont, de Havillandi komeet, õhukiiruse suursaadik ja paljud teised 1940. ja 1950. aastate tsiviilõhusõidukite disainilahendused täpsustasid kolm sõjaaegset valitsuskomiteed Sir Peter Masefield annab meile sisevaate.

Arhiivist - Sir Alan Cobham Hon, kuidas lennukiga lennata. PETTUD

Liituge Sir Alan Cobhamiga tema de Havilland Mothi esiistmel meie esimesel lennutunnil.


AUDIO: Arhiivist - Sir Alan Cobham Hon, kuidas lennukiga lennata. PETTUD

SAAD KUULA SEDA PODCASTI ALLA, KÜLASTA ÜHISKONNA "SOUNDCLOUD" VÕI TELLI ITUUNIDEL TASUTA.

Liituge Sir Alan Cobhamiga tema de Havilland Mothi esiistmel meie esimesel lennutunnil. Pärast mootori käivitamist ja õhkutõusmist räägib mees, kelle sarnasus ja nägemus tõi inimestele lennunduse 1920. ja 1930. aastate vahel, kõnetab meid stiilselt läbi juhtimisseadiste ja selgitab, kuidas need lendu mõjutavad, enne kui meid turvaliselt maa peale tagasi viivad.

Salvestust toimetas Mike Stanberry FRAeS ja see digiteeriti tänu Royal Aeronautical Society Foundationi toetusele.

Riiklik lennundusraamatukogu
17. september 2019

Seotud

Heli: Jeffrey Quilli intervjuu

AUDIO: Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire'i piloot Jeffrey Quill FRAeS arutab oma karjääri lennunduses, mille tipphetk oli esimeste lendude tegemine ning kõigi 52 Spitfire'i variandi arendus- ja tootmiskatse lendamine.

Heli: taeva ümberkujundamine: piloodid, lennukid ja poliitika Briti lennunduses 1919-1940

Sõdadevaheline periood muutis Ühendkuningriigis lennunduse kõiki aspekte. Ajaloolane Peter Reese toob oma loengus Farnborough Air Sciences Trust Associationile välja mõned ajastu kujundanud lood ja tegelased.


Lennunduse arengud

Lõpp mõnuga lendamas 1920 tähendas, et Manxi taevas kuulis mõne aasta jooksul harva lennukimootori häält. Iiri mere vallikraav oli eralennukitele endiselt suur takistus ja see nõudis teatavat kaubanduslikku stiimulit, et meelitada lennukid tagasi Mani saarele. Selle stiimuli pakkusid Mani saare turismitrofeed, mis olid nüüd maailma tähtsaimaks mootorrattaürituseks. Pealtvaatajad kogunesid saarele, et näha viimaseid mootorrattaid TT -kursusel testimas, kuna paljud tootmisettevõtted võistlesid ülimuslikkuse nimel. Sisepõlemismootor oli pidev eksperimentide ja arendustegevuse allikas ning õigustatult on väidetud, et TT -kursusel saadud õppetundidest oli kasu uute lennukimootorite projekteerimisel.

Just 1925. aasta T. T. koosolek tõi Douglasesse de Havilland DR 9, mida juhtis hr C. Barnard, kes leidis sobiva koha Douglas Headil maandumiseks. Selle lennu oli tellinud juhtiv ajakiri "The Motor Cycle", et pakkuda uudistega näljastele fännidele oma T. T. väljaande koopiaid. Seda kordas järgmisel aastal veel üks DR 9, seekord lendas härra G. L. P. Henderson. Sellest sai iga -aastane sündmus ja järgmise kahe aasta jooksul nähti T. Tribüüni suurt välja, kus kasutati "Mootorratta" koopiaid minimaalse viivitusega.

Tänu mootorrattale võib 1928. aastat pidada Manxi lennunduses oluliseks verstapostiks. Sel aastal toimetas Imperial Airwaysi lennuk lennukist ajakirja koopiaid, mille kaal oli tonn. Maandumiskohaks valiti suur põld, mis kuulus Ronaldsway talule, Derbyhaven, Castletowni lähedal saare lõunaosas. Imperial Airwaysi piloot oli kapten G. P. Olley, kellele pidi järgmisel kümnendil olema juhtiv roll Manxi lennuteenuste arendamisel. Reisilennukiks oli Handley Page H.P.27 Hampstead, mis registreeriti 1925. aastal G-EBLE nimega ja nimega „New Yorgi linn”. See oli haruldane lind ja ainult üks leiti tsiviilregistrist. Jõuallikaks on kolm 385 hj. Armstrongi Siddeley Jaguari mootorid kaalusid viis tonni ja võisid läbida 400 miili kiirusel 95 km / h. Selle 75 -meetrise tiivaulatusega ja üle 60 jala pikkune mahukas salong mahutas luksuslikest vitstest toolidele 14 reisijat. Ventilatsiooni ajaks võis aknad avada, samal ajal kui piloot ja mehaanik istusid avatud kabiinis.

Kui kapten Olley koos kahe mehaanikuga saabus teisipäeval, 5. juunil kell 16, polnud pardal ühtegi reisijat. olles lahkunud Croydonist kell 12.30 ja peatunud Manchesteris tankima. Ronaldswayl lepiti kokku Shelli kohaliku agendiga Manx Petroleums Ltd., alustades sellega pikka koostööd, mis jätkub ka täna. Seejärel teatas kapten Olley, et lennud Hampsteadis on saadaval neljapäeval ja reedel kell 1016 reisi ajal, samal ajal kui lennud ümber saare maksavad 2 naela. 12.6. Paljud kohalikud elanikud kasutasid oma esimese lennu võimalust enne, kui reisilennuk reedel pärast Senior T. T. -d lahkus.

1928. aastal oli ka rõõm Douglase rannast uuesti lennata, kuna oli kokku lepitud Surrey Flying Services Ltd. -ga, kellel oli Douglas Headil angaar lennuväljana tegutsemiseks. Kasutatav lennuk oli „Avro”, mille võimsus oli 130 hj. mootor ja suudab vedada nelja reisijat ”. See saabus Blackpoolist reede, 15. juuni keskpäeval hooajaks ja seda juhtis Mr.J.J. Flynn. Ta oli endine R.F.C. ja R.A.F. piloot, kes sai pärast sõda Iiri õhuväe ülemjuhatajaks. Kui ilm lubas, asus Avro palee vastas mõõna ajal 5 šillingipöörde jaoks. Avrot kasutas ka kuulus langevarjur "Miss Jane", et näidata meeleavaldusi Douglase lahe kohal.

Järgmisel aastal, 1929. aastal, naasis kapten Olley uute koopiatega “Mootorratast” ja Hampsteadiga liitus De Havilland 61 hiiglaslik koi, kes oli ajalehes Daily Mail. Juunioride T. T. esmaspäeval nähti seda pärast võistluse edenemist ässreporter Paul Bewcheriga. Ta andis võistlusest graafilise ülevaate TT eriväljaandes „Mail”, mille DR 61 tõi saarele nädala lõpus. Huvitav on märkida, et härra Bewcher oli olnud piloot R.F.C. kuni ta sai raskelt haavata. Sõja ajal ilmus ta hiljem Doiety teatris Gaiety, et pidada loengut pilootide värbamise eesmärgil.

1929. aasta T. T. periood andis ka ühe neist hämmastavatest lugudest, mis võisid juhtuda alles lendamise algusaegadel. See puudutab Saksa mootorratturit, kes oli võidusõiduõnnetuses jala kaotanud. Wolfram Hirst oli lendama läinud ja otsustanud näha T. T. võistlust, asus ta koos mehaanikust sõbraga teele pisikeses kahekohalises kohas, mis kaalus kuni 10 tk. Ta lahkus Stuttgartist ainult ebamäärase ideega, kus Mani saar asub. Sel reedel maandus ta Canterbury'sse, kus tal kästi Croydonile paberite kontrollimiseks aru anda. Seal anti talle kaardid ja ta suundus Blackpooli tankima. Ta saabus Douglase kohale pühapäeva varahommikul ja oli üllatunud, et ei leidnud lennuvälja, nagu ta hiljem märkis: "Saksamaal on igas külas lennujaam." Tal õnnestus maanduda kaldpõllule Douglas Headile ja kohalik elanik, kes ei saanud keelest aru, saatis Wolframi ja tema sõbra Douglase politseijaoskonda. Kui nende visiidi objekt sai selgeks, soovitati neil oma lendav masin Douglase randa viia, kus abi saab. Kuidagi õnnestus neil uuesti õhku tõusta ja nad leidsid end rannast ümbritsetud uskmatu rahvahulgaga. Nad olid täiesti kahjutud, kui üks lendleht valmistas suure mutrivõtme ja eemaldas tiivad, mis seejärel kinnitati kere külgedel asuvate sulgude külge. Politsei saatel veeti see seade üle promenaadi ja viidi Esplanaadi taha garaaži ning majutati nagu beebi Austin!

Wolframi ja tema kaaslase eest hoolitseti hästi, nad olid varustatud tubadega hotellis Peveril, mida kasutas A.C.U. peakorterina. Neid lõbustasid ametnikud ja esmaspäeval jälgisid juunioride võistlust tribüünilt. Järgmisel hommikul valmistuti tagasisõiduks, kuna Wolfram soovis olla Berliinis, et osaleda õhuvõistlusel. Hiljem tegi ta juhtme kaudu teada, et jõudis pärast 1200 km pikkust vahemaandumiseta Esseni. Esimesed lendavad külalised mandrilt olid kindlasti tekitanud sensatsiooni.

Tõsisem visiit Mani saarele tehti hiljem 1929. aasta suvel, kui Sir Alan Cobham saabus 2. augustil augustipühade nädalavahetuseks. Juunis toimunud visiidiks tehti suuri ettevalmistusi, kuid Newcastle'i lähedal Grangemouthis toimunud masinavigastuste tõttu tuli see edasi lükata. Sir Alan oli tolle aja kuulsaim lendur, kes oli lõpetanud lennud Indiasse, Austraaliasse ja Aafrika ringrajale. Seejärel otsustas ta loobuda edasisest tegevusest ja pühendada oma jõud riigi õhkkondlikumaks muutmisele ning valis lennuväljade arendamise edendamiseks välja 100 Briti saarte omavalitsust. Nii sai alguse tema kuulus Suurbritannia ringrada, mida sponsoreeris Castroli õlifirma sir Charles Wakefield. Douglas oli üks valitud linnadest nende 500 linna seast, kes olid huvi üles näidanud.

Blackpoolist lennates saabus Ronaldswayle suur DH 61 Giant Moth, nimega 'Youth of Britain'. Masin, G-AAEV, oli varustatud ühe 500 hj Bristoli Jupiteri mootoriga. ja see võib vedada 14 reisijat lühikestel vahemaadel. Sir Alanile tulid vastu kodanikuväärikad ja ta ei raisanud aega linnapea ja tema parri õhku tõstmiseks. Vastuvõtul kutsus Sir Alan tungivalt astuma kiireid samme, et anda Douglasele lennuväli ja ka vesilennukite baas, pakkudes nõu parimate kohtade osas. Järgmisel hommikul oli ta tagasi Ronaldsway's, et täita oma visiidi teine ​​eesmärk, milleks oli lennata saare noortele. Lapsed, kokku 131, valiti välja onu Jacki klubi kaudu Mani saare eksamineerijal. Pärast lendu anti igaühele sertifikaat Sir Charles Wakefieldi kingilendu suveniirina „Suurbritannia noortes”. Kahjuks pidid umbes pooled elevil lastest pettuma, sest DH 61 sõitis taksoga sõites rööbastesse, põhjustades veermikule kahjustusi. Masina tõstmiseks toodi Qualtroughi puitehasest Castletownist pärit riistvara. Vaja oli uusi osi, nii et pärast laupäeva õhtul Palace'i ballisaalis ilmumist lahkus Sir Alan hiljem pakett -auriku teel de Havillandi teoste juurde. Esmaspäeva lõunaks tehti remont ja pärast hüvastijätmist lahkus Sir Alan Blackpooli tagasi.

Kui „Suurbritannia noored” õhku tõusid, kandis ta üle Iiri mere kaks härrasmeest, kes on esimesed teadaolevad Manxi reisijad. Need olid ajakirjanik ja võtmete maja tulevane liige härra R. C. Stephens ja Tom Sheard, esimene manxman, kes võitis T.T. Mootori heli summutamiseks väljastati neile vatt. Pardal oli ka kolmas reisija - Manxi kassipoeg, keda hoiti pagasiga kuhjatud korvis. Viiskümmend minutit kestnud teekond kulges Maughold Headi ja Walney saare kaudu, et lühendada mereületust. Nad jõudsid õigeks ajaks Stanley parki, et osaleda uue lennuvälja avamise pidustustel.

1933. aasta aprillis külastas Mani saart veel kaks suurepärast nime lennundusmaailmas, kui Amy Johnson ja tema abikaasa Jim Mollison mõnitasid mõneks päevaks Londonist põgenemist. Kõik lendasid neljapäeval, 14. aprillil Stag Lane'ist eraldi. Amy startis kell 14.00. aastal DR 60G koi nimega “Jason 4” koi järgi, kellest ta oli saanud 1930. aastal esimese Austraaliasse lennanud naisena. Ta jäi Ronaldswayst mööda ja lendas põhja suunas, maandudes Ramsey lähedal Vollani talu põllul. Teade selle kuulsa daami saabumisest levis kiiresti ja suur rahvahulk kogunes ümber “Jason 4”, mida valvas Ramsey Constabulary konstaabel Quayle. Amyt lõbustas kohalik M.H.K. Härra D. J. Teare ja tema naine. Telefonil oli härra Teare kontaktis Ronaldswayga ja kell 19.25. sai teate, et tema abikaasa on saabunud. Jim Mollison oli hiljem kiirema masinaga teele asunud ja peatunud Blackpoolis tankima. Kiirem masin oli DR 80a Puss Moth, “kõrbepilv”, milles Amy oli ületanud oma mehe Londoni-Kaplinna rekordi, läbides vahemaa 10½ tunniga vähem kui tema abikaasa.

Paar ööbis Derbyhaveni hotellis ja neid külastati kõikjal, kaasa arvatud lõunasöök valitsushoones koos Tema Ekstsellentsi Sir Claude Hilli ja Lady Hilliga. Järgmisel õhtul olid nad külalised mootorrattaklubi Peveril õhtusöögil Glen Helenis ja nende president Charles Gill J.P., M.H.K. andis Mollisonitele röstsaia ja tegi Jimile tunnustust hiljutise Põhja- ja Lõuna -Atlandi ületamise eest. Selle sündmuse mälestuseks istutati maa -alale Douglase kuusepuu ja siiani on näha silt Amy külastuse tähistamiseks:

Sõjaeelses lennunduses pidi saare külastamiseks olema veel palju kuulsamaid nimesid, eriti konkurentidena olulistel Mani saare õhuvõistlustel. Kuid on aeg vaadata püsivamaid arenguid, mis viivad lennuteenuste loomiseni saarele ja saarelt.


Kes oli Sir Alan Cobham? Mees, kes viis lennunduse massidesse - ajalugu

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& lsquoSee mees päästis Suurbritannia & rsquo juhtis 18. veebruaril 1941 uudiste kroonikas pealkirja, viidates Hawkeri orkaani disaineri Sydney Cammi rollile Suurbritannia lahingus. Samamoodi soovitas majandussõja minister lord Selborne Winston Churchillile, et Camm & lsquoEngland on palju võlgu.

Kakskümmend viis aastat hiljem, pärast tema surma 1966. aastal, viitasid järelehüüded Sunday Expressis ja Sunday Timesis muu hulgas ka & lsquoHurricane Designer & rsquo või & lsquoHurricane Maker & rsquo, mis tähendab, et see masin kujutas endast Camm & rsquose professionaalsete saavutuste tippu. Austatud lennukidisainer ja Hawkeri lennukompanii asutaja Sir Thomas Sopwith uskus, et Camm väärib palju laiemat tunnustust, olles kahtlemata maailma suurim hävituslennukite disainer. & Rsquo

1893. aastal sündinud kaheteistkümnest lapsest vanim Camm kasvatati väikeses ridaelamus. Hoolimata sellest, et pärast 14-aastast kooli lõpetamist puuduvad rahaliselt kindlustatud kasvatuse ja ametliku tehnilise hariduse eelised, saab Cammist üks olulisemaid inimesi Suurbritannia ja rsquose lennundusloos.

Sydney Cammi ja rsquose töö orkaaniga polnud kaugeltki ainus tipp tema tähelepanuväärsel lennukite projekteerimise ja inseneri karjääril ning karjäär, mis ulatus 1920. aastate kahelennukitest kuni külma sõja reaktiivlennukiteni. Tõepoolest, enam kui viiskümmend aastat pärast tema surma on revolutsiooniline Hawker Siddeley Harrier, kus Camm mängis nii silmapaistvat tegelast, järgides Falklandi saare kriisi & rsquo tähtkuju, endiselt Ameerika relvajõududes.

Seetõttu pole ehk üllatav, nagu autor sellest üksikasjalikust elulooraamatust selgub, et Camm saaks oma riigis rüütliks, saaks Prantsusmaal ja Ameerika Ühendriikides ametliku autasu ning võetaks vastu San Diego rahvusvahelisse kuulsuste saali.

See on kasulik elulugu Briti lennundustööstuse ühest tähtsamast tegelasest, kellestki, kelle karjäär algas varsti pärast esimest mehitatud lendu ja lõppes Harjeri hüppelennukiga.

Loe täielikku arvustust siit

Sõja ajalugu

Mulle meeldis palju teada saada suurmehe ületamatu varajase elu kohta Windsoris. Siin on palju õppida orkaani sünnist ja sõjajärgse perioodi riiklikust ja lennukitööstuse poliitikast haaratud lennukidisaineriks olemise viletsustest.

Battle of Britain Memorial Trust veebisait

Hästi uuritud ja informatiivne bio.

Loe täielikku arvustust siit

Vintage Airfix

See on suurepärane, hästi uuritud ja hästi loetav raamat-mitte, et John Sweetmanilt midagi vähemat oodata-, kelle liikmed võivad meenutada, pidas 2001. aasta mais Ulsteri lennundusseltsile kõne oma raamatust Dambustersist. Väga soovitatav.

Ulsteri lennundusselts

See raamat on kvaliteetne lugemine, kus on palju uuritud inimest, keskkonda, kus ta töötas, ja aastakümneid, mille jooksul ta andis nii erakordseid panuseid.

Gary Connor, Õhujõudude ajalugu, suvi 2020

John Sweetmani uus elulugu jutustab osavalt 20. sajandi lennundusajaloo ühe tähelepanuväärseima tegelase elust

Lennunduse ajalugu

John Sweetmani uus elulugu jutustab osavalt 20. sajandi lennundusajaloo ühe tähelepanuväärseima tegelase elust, kelle karjäär sai alguse puidust ja kangast kahelennukite ajastul ja lõppes arenenud ülehelikiirusega reaktiivlennukitega ning kes võib vaieldamatult oma osa nõuda tunnustust selle edu eest.

Ajakiri Lennundusajalugu, mai 2020 - läbi vaadanud Robert Guttman

"Hea lugemine, see on soovitatav."

Nagu kajastatud

Lennuk, veebruar 2020

John Sweetmani suurepärane raamat viimaks täidab suure lünga Suurbritannia lennunduse, eriti Hawker Aircraft Ltd. See raamat keskendub mehele, tema pereelule, kuidas ta Kingstonis oma töötajatega töötas, kuidas ta tegi koostööd tarnijate, näiteks Bristol Enginesi ja Roll-Royce'i vaneminseneridega ning kuidas ta kasutas oma mainet Ühendkuningriigi ametnike veenmiseks valitsusministeeriumid ja relvajõud tema projekte toetama.

Kogu Cammi elu on kaetud Windsoris sündimisest kuni surmani Richmondi golfiklubis Windsori mudellennuklubist, õpipoisiõppe ja koostöö käigus Martiniga ja Handasyde Aviationiga, HG Hawker Engineering Co, Hawker Aircraft Ltd ja Hawker Siddeley Aviationiga. . Autor on selgelt läbi viinud mitmeaastase hoolika uurimistöö, nagu annab tunnistust kaheksaleheküljeline bibliograafia. Ta on rääkinud Cammi sugulaste ja tema heaks töötanud inimestega, ta on lugenud kirju ja pabereid erakogudes ning viidanud raamatutele, avaldatud ja avaldamata materjalidele ning ajalehtedele, perioodikaväljaannetele ja ajakirjadele - ükski kivi pole pööramata jäänud.

See hästi toodetud 320 -leheküljeline raamat on hädavajalik lugemine lennundusajaloo huvilistele ja meestele, kes tegid Suurbritanniast lennukite disaini ja innovatsiooni alal maailma liidri. Nagu John Sweetman näitab, oli Cammi töö Suurbritannia ja seega ka lääne demokraatia ellujäämiseks teises maailmasõjas ülioluline.

Amazon UK ülevaade

Kokkuvõttes on see informatiivne põhjalikult uuritud ja kaasahaarav ülevaade sellest, kuidas Suurbritannia varandus oli lahutamatult seotud Sydney Cammsi nägemuse ja iseloomu tugevusega, et viia Hawkeri orkaani lubadus ellu konservatiivse ja kõikuva lennundusministeeriumi vastu.

Autori ümberhinnang orkaanile on selles osas eriti teretulnud ja kuigi filmi „Päästja Suurbritannia“ moniker istus Cammiga rahutult, on raske vastu vaielda tema kuulsaima masina kesksele kvalitatiivsele ja kvantitatiivsele rollile ajal, mil Suurbritannia jäi üksi ootama natside sissetungi.

Loe täielikku arvustust siit

Donna raamatute blogi

Nagu kajastas

Berkshire Life, oktoober 2019

Nagu kajastatud

Suurbritannia ajalooseltsi lahing

Sydney Camm pole kunagi pälvinud tähelepanu, mida ta rikkalikult vääris. See uus raamat läheb väga kaugele ajaloolaste tegematajätmiste parandamiseks - kõige soovitatavam.

Selle aasta 1940. aasta nädalavahetusel Sheringhamis toimus varem Suurbritannia lahingu lendpast, milles osales vähemalt Spitfire ja Lancasteri pommitaja. Sel aastal oli meil laupäeval Spitfire ja pühapäeval orkaan. Orkaanid on tänapäeval muidugi haruldasemad kui Spitfires ja meil oli äärmiselt privileeg näha ühte lähedalt, mis lendas üle linna ja mööda rannikut. John Sweetman vaatab teedrajava disaineri Sydney Cammi poole ja uurib tema pärandit, milleks oli meie kahe ikoonilisema hävituslennuki - orkaani ja harjeri - disain. Geniaalne!

Raamatud igakuiselt

Informatiivne, läbimõeldud ja põhjalik.

Vaata täielikku videoülevaadet siit

Skaala modelleerimine kohe

Autori intervjuu kuulamiseks klõpsake siin

MÄRKUS: seadke kursor 1:14:41

BBC Raadio Devon koos saatejuhi David FitzGeraldiga, 18. september 2019

Väga hästi kirjutatud ja loetav raamat. on tõenäoline, et see köide köidab lugejate tähelepanu. Lennundusajaloolased võivad seda kasutada, nagu ka sõjaajaloolased, kes on huvitatud sõjalennundusest. Lennundushuvilised, kes tunnevad huvi Hawkeri orkaani, Hawker-Siddeley grupi ja Briti sõjaväelennunduse vastu, võivad samuti nende tähelepanu väärida. Väikese arvu lennukipiltide olemasolu fotolõigus võib huvitada ka lennukite modelleerijaid.

Keith Rimmer, NZ kroonikaevandused

Autori intervjuu kuulamiseks klõpsake siin

MÄRKUS: määrake kursor 9:40

BBC Radio Berkshire koos saatejuhi Sarah Walkeriga, 29. august 2019

JOHN SWEETMAN & rsquos sisaldab palju väljaandeid Schweinfurti haarangud ja Oil Strike & ndash Ploesti kirjeldades Ameerika rüüsteretki, Pilvede ratsavägi , Dambusters Raid ja Tirpitz & ndash Jaht metsalist Briti lennuoperatsioonide kohta kahe maailmasõja ajal Euroopa kohal. Abielus kahe poja ja nelja lapselapsega elab ta Camberley's.


Kes oli Sir Alan Cobham? Mees, kes viis lennunduse massidesse - ajalugu

Kuna Blackpooli lennujaam tähistab oma sajandat juubelit, vaatame tagasi linna lennunduse ajaloole.

Krediit lennunduse tutvustamiseks piirkonda kuulub Blackpool Corporationile ja Daily Maili omanikule Lord Northcliffe'ile.

Lord Northcliffe oli lendamisest väga huvitatud ja sponsoreeris oma ajalehe kaudu arvukalt lennunäitusi.

Teda inspireeris prantsuse lendur Louis Bleriot - kes tegi esimese ajaloolise lennu üle La Manche'i väina.

Lord Northcliffe sai inspiratsiooni ka maailma esimesest avalikust õhusõidust Rheimsis, nii et ta kirjutas 1909. aasta augustis Blackpooli raekojale, et soovitada linnal oma väljapanek välja panna.

Blackpool Corporation oli entusiastlik ja kuupäevaks määrati 18. – 23. Oktoober 1909, mis teeb sellest esimese ametliku lennunduskoosoleku, mis peetakse selles riigis Ühendkuningriigi Aero Clubi (nüüd Royal Aero Club) egiidi all.

Koosolek pidi korraldama Squires Gate'i maal, mis oli siis osa Squire Cliftoni pärandist.

Etenduse lõpuni jõudmiseks oli tööministeeriumis aega vaid seitse nädalat, kus töötas üle 200 varem töötuna töötanud mehe, kes töötasid ööd ja päevad angaaride ja tribüünide püstitamisel.

Esimene päev - 18. oktoober 1909

Esimesena alustas mees A.V. Roe, kes tõi oma väikese kollase lennuki selle kuurist välja, et seda katsetada. Masin aga keeldus tõusmisest ja võimalus kadus inglasel, kes esimesena Blackpooli lendas.

See saavutus läks prantslasele Henri Farmanile, kes lõpetas kursuse ringi suure aplausi saatel. Farman püstitas ka esimese ametliku Suurbritannia rekordi veidi üle 47 miili pikkuse lennuga ning võitis seejärel Grand Blackpooli auhinna ja £ 2000, mis anti võistlejale, kes läbis kõige rohkem ringradu ilma maad puudutamata.

Salvestuste kohaselt osales üritusel 200 000 pealtvaatajat, kes jõid 36 000 pudelit õlut, 40 000 tosinat pudelit mineraalaineid, 500 šampanjat ja 600 viskit - ning neil oli isegi aega tarbida 500 sigapead, 1000 singi ja 2000 seapirukat!

1911 hipodroom ja Esimene maailmasõda

Lancashire Aero Clubi korraldatud lendkarneval toimus 1910. aastal, kuid sellega lõppes Squires Gate paljude aastate lennunduskeskus.

Aastal 1911 renditi maa Clifton Parki hipodroomide sündroomile, kes rajas võistlusraja ning ehitas tribüünid ja klubihoone. Esimene võistlus oli & pound1 Coronation Gold Cup, mis toimus 1. augustil 1911 ja mida jälgis üle 20 000 rahvahulga.

Ettevõtmine ei osutunud aga edukaks ja viimased võistluskoosolekud peeti 1914. aastal.

Kuna aasta jooksul puhkes sõda, kasutati seda maad kuninga Lancashire'i sõjaväe taastuskoduna, kus üle 3000 mehe võeti vastu hipodroomile ehitatud onnides.

Kodu jäi kasutusse kogu Esimese maailmasõja ajal, enne kui see lammutati 1924. aastal, kui koht anti tagasi Cliftoni mõisale.

1919 Lõbusõidud

The intrepid flyers of the First World War had done much to establish aviation in the public mind.

In 1919 the A.V. Roe Company, later to become the famous aircraft manufacturer Avro, offered pleasure flights from South Shore before being transferred to Squires Gate where they were operated at five shillings a time by the Lancashire School of Aviation. Flying had returned to its original site.

In 1928 an Air Pageant was once again staged at Squires Gate with 73 aircraft from the newly-formed Royal Air Force. Whilst the officers were accommodated at the Queens Hydro hotel, the airmen slept under the grandstands!

1931 New Location - Stanley Park

Over the years Blackpool Corporation had become increasingly interested in aviation.

In 1927 the Corporation asked Sir Alan Cobham, who ran an air circus and was also holder of several air records, to recommend a site for Blackpool's Municipal Aerodrome. Cobham selected land to the east of Stanley Park apparently because the site was available for purchase unlike Squires Gate.

Some 200 men worked for two years on the site and the airport was officially opened at a cost of £39,000 in 1931 by the Prime Minister, The Rt. Härra. J Ramsay MacDonald M.P.

The operation of the aerodrome was leased to National Flying Services Ltd, and other operators soon became established including the British Amphibious Air Company who ran trips to the Isle of Man in four-seater planes at a fare of 36 shillings return.

Competition quickly started to heat up when in 1932 aviation returned to Squires Gate and Blackpool and West Coast Air Services established a rival airport. In 1933 the operator started running flights from Liverpool to the Isle of Man via this new Squires Gate aerodrome as well as offering pleasure flights.

Other airlines were also attracted to use Squires Gate and soon Stanley Park was becoming little more than a flying club. It became clear that one airfield would have to close.

In 1935 Blackpool Corporation took the decision to acquire the Squires Gate site for £175,000 from the Clifton Estate as it was viewed as offering more potential than Stanley Park.

Following advice from the Ministry of Transport in 1936 the decision was made to cease operations at Stanley Park and concentrate on Squires Gate.

Second World War - Wellington Bombers

Blackpool's hopes for its new airport hit a setback with the outbreak of war in 1939.

Squires Gate was taken over as an RAF Coastal Command training station and Stanley Park was requisitioned as an RAF parachute training centre. It was later used as a venue for the Royal Lancashire Agricultural Show and eventually as the site of the town's zoo.

Three runways were built at Squires Gate, along with hangars and ammunition stores for RAF aircraft. Fighter Squadrons were based there for the defence of Merseyside against German bombers.

A large factory was also built by Lord Beaverbrook's Ministry of Aircraft Production and was occupied by the Vickers Company who built 3,842 Wellington Bombers at Squires Gate between 1941 and 1945.

A state of uncertainty existed during the post-war years, regarding the ownership and the future of the Squires Gate airport. Officially, it was under the control of the newly-formed Ministry of Civil Aviation which had taken over nearly all other municipal aerodromes.

Fortunately, Blackpool's ambitions to have an international airport were not forgotten and with agreement that the airfield could be used for civil operation, the first scheduled flights were provided in 1946 by British European Airways from Manchester to the Isle of Man via Blackpool.

Pleasure flights also resumed and several companies became established, including one of the largest, the Lancashire Aircraft Corporation.

In conjunction with North-West Airlines, services were offered from Blackpool to the Isle of Man, Manchester, London, Leeds, Birmingham, Southport and Glasgow.

The airport was redesigned in 1949 to make it more attractive to passengers and by 1950, 25,000 passengers were passing through the airport.

The 1940s and 1950s also saw a number of other operators and airlines using the airfield as well as a diverse range of aircraft Rapides, Austers, Dakotas, Herons, and the Bristol freighters.

There was also renewed activity soon after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 in the airport's factory with the production of Hawker Hunters.

1962 - Municipal Airport

By 1958 it was considered that the operating costs were too much for the government. After three years of negotiation, Blackpool Corporation agreed to pay £175,000 for 528 acres of land, runways and buildings and assumed control on 1 April 1962.

The airport continued to develop and grow and by the 1980s there was a significant increase in passengers and air traffic movements. One holiday company even offered 'Landladies Specials' - holiday package tours from Blackpool to the Mediterranean.

In 1987 Blackpool Airport was recognised as a Private Limited Company with Blackpool Borough Council as 100% shareholder. For 17 years the airport remained under its control until 2004, when MAR Properties Ltd purchased it.

The following year around 400,000 passengers travelled via the airport thanks to the introduction of several new flight routes and the introduction of new airlines.

By 2006, a £2m refurbishment of the passenger terminal was completed and the airport now has the capacity to handle two million passengers a year.


Golden tribute to Wolverhampton's disappeared airport

The story of Wolverhampton's long disappeared airport has been brought to life for the internet generation.

As part of an historical project, during the 50th anniversary year of its closure, transport enthusiast Ron Leach, 76, has worked with fellow enthusiast Dave Nutting to prepare a video feature.

The video, which has now been launched on YouTube, remembers the municipal aerodrome at Pendeford, which has since been replaced by housing and an industrial park.

Mr Leach, from Hurst Hill, Sedgley, said: "This is our way of marking the anniversary.

"We see it as a gift to like-minded transport enthusiasts. It takes the information from a little book by my friend Dave Welch and sets it out in a form suitable, I hope, for YouTube.

"I wanted to make Dave's information available to people who might not buy books.

"These days a younger person might hear about Pendeford, wonder about it, and go online to try to find information, and this presents it in a concisely, summarised form.

"The video lasts only 10 minutes but is full of accurate facts, maps, drawings and period photographs.

"It is intended to stand the test of time and be a reference source for years to come."

The video is titled 'Pendeford Airport – A Brief History'.

There is also a second 12-minute video, by Mr Nutting alone, which covers the development of the airfield and its features.

But it also tells the story of the movie The Man In The Sky, starring Jack Hawkins, which was filmed on location in and around the airfield in 1956.

Mr Leach said the airfield formally closed on December 31, 1970.

"It's all rather sad, really," he said. "People were campaigning to keep it open, and then an aeroplane crashed on a house in Redhurst Drive in Fordhouses, killing somebody. So that was the end of that."

That tragedy in April 1970 claimed the lives of a resident, and also the two crew of a Hawker Siddeley Dove, which stalled while trying to land in bad weather.

Mr Leach visited the airfield in 1964 to watch a flying display, but said: "I haven't been to the site since.

"I'm disabled and housebound now, so I couldn't get there if I wanted to."

Dave Welch, who wrote a 52-page book on which information in the video is based, joined Don Everall Aviation at Pendeford in 1957, and lives now near Taunton.

"I left school in about July and was going to join the air force straight off, but then got offered a job as a trainee mechanic at the airport and worked there for about six months," he said.

Later he did some flying training there in Austers, and later still, when making occasional visits to see his parents in Stafford, would pop to Pendeford to see what was going on.

"It was never very busy," he added. "When I worked there, if we got two visiting aircraft in a day, that was a good day."

Despite a campaign to stop the closure, that 1970 air tragedy spelt its doom.

Mr Welch said: "A lot of us felt the place had potential. We knew the M6 and M54 were going to come nearby so it would have good road connections.

"It was a much better airfield than Halfpenny Green, and had a pretty good weather record.

"It had that really nice art deco clubhouse with a bar and restaurant. It had everything going for it.

"If the council had had a more positive attitude towards the place it could have been a success."

The origin of the airfield was a surge in enthusiasm by cities and towns in the 1930s to have their own aerodrome, and the Express & Star was a leading champion of Wolverhampton's cause.

Examples of the paper's support for early aviation included sponsoring in November 1927 an attempted non stop flight to India by Bert Hinckler and a Captain McIntosh – it failed as the airmen were forced down by a blizzard in Poland – and the following year the E&S proprietors presented a new de Havilland Moth aircraft, called Wulfrun, to Midland Aero Club.

The site at Barnhurst Farm, Pendeford, was recommended by Sir Alan Cobham, and the airport opened on June 25, 1938, with Midland Aero Club appointed to manage the aerodrome on behalf of Wolverhampton council.

Performing the opening was a record breaking airman, Flying Officer Arthur Clouston, who said he thought the aerodrome could be enlarged.

"The Mayor, Councillor R E Probert, he said, had told him that the Corporation owned all the surrounding land, and if they liked they could have the biggest airport in the world," the Express and Star reported on the day.

The opening was marked with an air pageant which included a display in a Kirby Kite glider by the famous woman aviator Amy Johnson.

Other excitements for the crowds included a wayward parachute drop by a Miss Ray Clark, who nearly landed in the canal, and a mock air raid display by local ARP (Air Raid Precautions) wardens and firefighters that was so botched it drew derisive laughter.

The outbreak of war in 1939 ended all civilian flying, and the airfield was used by the RAF to give pilots elementary training using Tiger Moth biplanes.

It was also used by the Boulton Paul factory on the doorstep, which made the Boulton Paul Defiant and Blackburn Roc, which were fighters equipped with gun turrets.

Pendeford attracted the attention of the Luftwaffe only once, when a Junkers Ju 88 raider dropped five bombs in September 1940, which fell harmlessly.

Post war, private flying gradually resumed, and Wolverhampton Aero Club was formed in 1946. The video tells how in 1950 the airfield hosted the King's Cup and Goodyear Trophy air races – airport manager Ron Paine finished ninth.

Later, Wolverhampton Aviation ran the airport for the council, and the first scheduled flight was to Jersey on July 18, 1953, in a de Havilland Rapide.

The video says Wolverhampton Aviation did not renew its contract to operate the airport, and Don Everall Aviation took over the running of Pendeford.

Alas, the airport was losing money. Grass runways and limited technical facilities hampered its potential development, and closure was recommended when Everall's agreement expired on December 31, 1970.

In its final decade, Pendeford was notable for several flying displays, usually in support of the Royal Air Forces Association.

Mr Nutting's separate YouTube video – titled 'Pendeford Airport & The Man in the Sky' – looks at the history of the airfield and its features, but chiefly takes an in-depth look at the filming of The Man In The Sky, including using a "then and now" format comparing still images from the movie with the locations as they are today.


Forgotten hero Frank McClean paved the way for modern airplane travel

Frank McClean spent his life traveling and experimenting with aviation. His early flights in Egypt helped pave the way for commercial flights in the 1930’s.

Born in England to Irish immigrant parents in 1876, McClean’s interest in flying introduced him to some of aviation’s biggest names. In 1908 he met and flew with one of the Wright Brothers in France. Orville and Wilbur Wright are remembered for their successful flight in North Carolina in 1908. McClean gave financial aid to the Short brothers: Oswald, Horace and Eustace who had one of the earliest aviation manufacturing companies. In addition he bought and tested some of their airplanes.

It was one of the Shorts’ planes that helped McClean achieve celebrity status in his own right. In 1912 he flew one of their seaplanes between the towers of Tower Bridge in London. His feat made headlines and he became a celebrity overnight. He then flew under London Bridge, Blackfriars, and Waterloo, which were lower bridges.

The BBC quoted that Flight Magazine’s reported on August 7, 1912, “Approaching London Mr McClean brought his machine lower down and negotiated the Tower Bridge between the lower and upper spans, but the remaining bridges to Westminster he flew underneath, the water being just touched at Blackfriars and Waterloo bridges. He reached Westminster about 8.30 and was taken ashore to Westminster Pier.”

The next year McClean traveled to Egypt and he took off in the Short seaplane for the Nile Delta. He turned south towards Cairo and landed on the Nile River. Helping him reach his destination of Khartoum was his co-pilot, Alec Ogilvie, a four man support team, and McClean’s sister Anna. Since the seaplane could only seat four, they took turns traveling in the seaplane and traveling overland.

Flying the Short seaplane was not an easy feat. The engine broke down 13 times during his travels. After he reached Aswan, he had engine trouble and the wait for new engine cylinders from England took a month. Unusually impatient, McClean wrote to Horace Short in a letter, he was “getting tired of this series of happenings.”

As frustrating as it could be for McClean, his travels helped pave the way for future aviators. In 1925 British aviator Sir Alan Cobham’s route to Cape Town included several stops on the Nile where McClean had been about ten years earlier.

McClean flew with the Royal Naval Air Service during World War I and afterwards spent a short time flying with the Royal Air Force.

By the 1930’s, Egypt became an important stop in routes taking people all over the British empire. Travelers would stop and see the sights Cairo had to offer before continuing on their commercial flights. Egypt enjoyed this prominence until the end of World War II, after which Beirut had greater aviation importance. After the end of WWI, the British Air Ministry Teams began organizing a route of seaplane landing spots that later linked Egypt and South Africa.

Although, he had done much for early aviation, McClean did not contribute to commercial aviation and after a long illness he died in 1955 at the age of 79.

For more on aviation in the early twentieth century, read Gerald Butt’s History in the Arab Skies: Aviation’s Impact on the Middle East.


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A guide to the Highland & Islands

A brief guide to the area of Scotland known as the Highland & Islands

The 1950s I.T. revolution

Not what we understand by I.T. today, in the 1950s I.T. stood for Inclusive Tours. And it created a whole new vacation concept which blossomed and is still very popular today.

Gliding

Without any doubt the purest and in many ways the most skillful form of flying. And, it preceded powered flying by about fifty years.

Harrogate flying sites

Note: This map only gives the location of Harrogate town within the UK.


HARROGATE: Man carrying kite trials?

NOTES: In December 1901 a telegram was sent, (presumably from the War Office?), to Samuel F Cody at, The Grange, Walker Road, Harrogate. Asking if it was convenient for an officer from Aldershot to see his kite experiments. I assume these were man-carrying kites for reconnaissance purposes as by 1899 at least Cody had demonstrated such a device near Carlisle. And, Cody was very keen for the British government to adopt the idea.


SOMETHING TO BE LOOKED INTO?
The more you look into early British aviation history Harrogate crops up time and time again. Aga miks? Having visited the town many times I can&rsquot really understand why Harrogate was a favoured location for early aviation pioneers. Can anybody explain?

HARROGATE: Temporary landing ground

Period of operation: 24th July 1911

NOTES: A site near Harrogate was selected to be the first Control Point for the Daily Mail &lsquoCircuit of Britain&rsquo air race. Twenty one aircraft departed from the assembly point in BROOKLANDS on the 22nd and fifteen aircraft departed from the race starting line at HENDON on the 24th. Five aircraft reached Harrogate and only three managed to reach Edinburgh. Incredibly this acheivement compares really very favourably with some flying circumstances today when attempted by private pilots! But it must be borne in mind most of us today would never take such risks as they did.

For example in May 2003 I was involved in a strictly VFR (Visual Flight Rules) flight departing from ELSTREE to a unique airshow at Ober-Schleissheim near Munich. It took us three days to get there, (although we did arrive before 8AM on the third day), mainly due to weather and air show administration difficulties and of the two hundred or more light aircraft visitors invited on the Sunday only about sixteen arrived and we were the first to arrive before the weather closed in. We had also travelled the longest distance across Europe of anybody attending we were told.

In effect we had not really made much progress compared to these early aviators. Except that we were not prepared to risk our lives!

HARROGATE: Temporary aerodrome for &lsquojoy-riding exhibition flights&rsquo

Haldab: The Northern Aircraft Co

Period of operation: 1914

NOTES: Although I have found no proof of an actual flying site, the fact that The Northern Aircraft Co had an office at No.9 Station Square seems to indicate they would have been operating in the area.


HARROGATE: Civil airport

British airline user: North Sea Aerial & General Transport

NOTES: It appears that a regular Scarborough-Hull-Harrogate service commenced in April 1919. Could anybody kindly provide a location for this 'airport'? It needs to be remembered that a regional airport, even in the 1930s, could consist of just a field with a windsock. Perhaps just a tent or shed to provide shelter in some cases.

HARROGATE: This was the 14th venue for Sir Alan Cobham&rsquos 1929 Municipal Aerodrome Campaign Tour. Starting in May it ended in October with one hundred and seven towns and cities visited. Mostly in England but with two venues in Wales and eight in Scotland. Without any doubt this Tour encouraged several aerodromes/regional airports to be constructed - but not in Harrogate.

The aircraft he used was the DH61 'Giant Moth' G-AAEV, named 'Youth of Britain'. This tour was an amazing example of stamina and organisation and I can highly recommend reading his memoirs in A Time to Fly.

It seems possible that the Cobham 'Tours' visited HARROGATE during every Tour from 1929 until 1933? The latter being 'Flying Circus' venues.

In 1932 it appears that a very serious accident occurred, according to Ted Chapman in his excellent book Cornwall Aviation Company published in 1979. The Cornwall Aviation Company were sub-contracted to the Cobham organisation to provide 'stunt flying displays' but also joy-ride operations.

Note: This picture, c/o A.J. Adams, was scanned from the book Cornwall Aviation Company.

"A more serious accident occurred almost at the end of the tour. At Harrogate, on the 5th October, Captain Crundall in Avro G-AAUJ was unable to recover from three spins started at a height of 1,500 feet. The aeroplane was nearly level at 50 feet, but hit the ground obliquely whilst still diving. The pilot and one passenger were not seriously hurt, but the other passenger was thrown out and died on the field."

I think this is of great interest. It appears "The Yorkshire Herald, which had previously found fault with CAC at Yeadon criticised the organisation of the display and thought no pilot could do low aerobatics every day and get away with it."

And of course they were spot on. But I think that we should not judge those pilots by the standards we have today. Their job was to thrill the crowds, and flying very close to the edges of 'the envelope' was simply part and parcel of the job, which they accepted. Plus, I suppose, as many if not all of them were brought up to think of the risks of flying in WW1, by comparison these sorties were a doddle?

HARROGATE see also BIRK CRAG

HARROGATE see also OAK VIEW

HARROGATE see also THE STRAY


Aces Low – Bournemouth’s flying races

Published in September &rsquo13

The scene at the entrance to one of the Bournemouth Air Races on Easter Monday, 1927

Today Bournemouth has impressive aviation credentials. Its airport enjoys international status, its air festival attracts large crowds, and its residents live in relative harmony with the associated airborne comings and goings ’twas not ever thus.
Turn back the clock to just over a century ago, when manned flight was in its infancy, and it was a town seething with controversy over the proposal of a Yorkshireman called Frederick Etches to create a racecourse and aerodrome complex in Kinson. Uproar at his intention to race planes at high speed over houses was further fuelled by the fact that he planned to stage some of these ‘spectaculars’ on Sundays. The local clergy were not amused and fire and brimstone sermons on the evils of unbridled frivolity and, worse, of gambling on the Lord’s Day thundered from many a pulpit. Also up in arms was the council, raising objections and attempting to block any plans associated with the scheme. And as for the locals, while many relished the potential thrill of horses thundering on the ground and flying machines whizzing overhead, yet more feared it would be irritating, detrimental to their properties and downright dangerous.

The route over which the air-races used to take place

Etches, who lived at Edgehill Road in Winton and was a pioneering pilot with his own Monsanto-G aircraft, had harboured ambitions of the aviatory kind for the town as far back as 1915, when he leased a couple of fields on what is now Bournemouth University’s campus on Wallisdown Road, opposite Talbot Village. Here he set up the Bournemouth Aviation Company, a flying school which trained pilots prior to entry into the Royal Flying Corps, later to become the RAF. From here he also masterminded the first plane landing in Poole to raise funds for Poole Soldiers’ Home and Cornelia Hospital, a haven for war casualties named after its benefactress, Lady Cornelia Spencer-Churchill, wife of Ivor Bertie Guest, 1st Baron Wimborne, and aunt of Winston.
The historic flight left Wallisdown, piloted by the school’s chief instructor, and landed in a field next to Poole Park four-and-a-half minutes later. In reply to a query over the cost of the exercise, a peeved Etches replied: ‘What? Don’t you think we can render a little service for two noble causes in the most important town in the country in which our flying school is situated?’
His school thrived, with some of the world’s leading lights in aviation, including Sir Alan Cobham, going through their paces there, until in 1917 it transferred to an 88-acre site at Ensbury Park, roughly covering the area around Hillview Road and Redhill Drive. Pilots continued to be schooled there and it was requisitioned by the Royal Flying Corps when the Royal Air Force was formed in 1918 it became RAF Winton. Airmen were trained in the emerging art of aerial warfare and introduced to new communication devices at the on-site RAF Wireless Telephony School.
During this period, the perils of early flight were highlighted by more than a few ‘prangs.’ One highly-decorated pilot took off and circled low to wave to his girlfriend below. His plane hit a tree and he was killed. Another, Second Lieutenant Edward Rebbeck, son of a former Bournemouth mayor, was killed when his aircraft plunged to the ground, and a biplane barely missed crashing into Bournemouth town centre after suffering engine failure as it looped over the Square.

William Sholto Douglas, the man who flew the inaugural flight from Ensbury Park in 1919

In 1919 the RAF moved out and the aerodrome became civilian, an event marked with an inaugural flight by an ex-RFC Handley Page bomber (0/400 D8350) with one of the war’s legendary fighter pilots , Lt Col William Sholto Douglas, at the controls. Douglas was famous for his fierce dog-fights with the enemy, including an intense plane-to-plane battle with Hermann Goering over France. He was in Bournemouth in his role of a Handley Page test pilot but would later rejoin the RAF, rising to head of Fighter Command shortly after the Battle of Britain.
So, while action in the skies was a familiar sight in Bournemouth, the town remained divided over Etches’ flying circus-cum-racetrack plans. Undeterred, he acquired the RAF site and finally found support and funding for the stadium, which lay roughly where Leybourne Avenue sits now. Air services were established and occasional air shows were staged. In the early 1920s the racecourse with two grandstands and stabling for 100 horses was finally built by McAlpine at a cost of about £100,000. Suddenly Fred Etches was manager of the Ensbury Park Racecourse Company and the first horse-race meeting in 1925 was a runaway success, attracting a crowd of 12,000 on the opening day.

The start of the April 1927 Killjoy Trophy race at Ensbury Park

The Ensbury Park course was owned by Etches along with a syndicate of entrepreneurs, one of whom was Sir Henry John ‘Jock’ Delves Broughton, after whom Broughton Avenue is named. A controversial figure, he was subsequently tried for murder in Happy Valley, Kenya in 1941. It was alleged that the baronet shot dead the Earl of Erroll, who had been having an affair with Brougton’s wife. Broughton was acquitted through lack of evidence and a dispute over the gun used. Filmis White Mischief, based on the story, Broughton was played by Joss Ackland.
For a while, race meetings at the two-mile, figure-of-eight course became the place to be seen and it was tipped to become ‘the Ascot of the South’, but an overwhelming lack of enthusiasm for betting, combined with high ticket and transport prices, resulted in the horse-racing lasting just eleven months. Etches wasn’t fazed. He had always intended the place to be an arena for showcasing the era’s flight developments and, despite continued protests from the churchmen, the first public air-race meeting was held in August 1926, with townsfolk witnessing for the first time aircraft tearing at high speed along a course marked by pylons. It was foolhardy by today’s standards, but these were the heady embryonic days of flight and nothing could stop the daredevil pilots.

The frankly terrifying spectacle of air racing just feet above a National Hunt steeplechase course

The initial meeting, the ‘Bournemouth Summer Aviation Race’, took place over the August bank holiday weekend. Entry to each of the eight events cost ten shillings, with prize money topping £100 for the main event, the Bournemouth Summer Handicap. There were races with turning points over Kinson Farm and Parley Green and it was not the magnificent men in their flying machines but a local farmer who stole the headlines on the historic first day. His name was Trelawney Reed and he was so incensed by the infernal contraptions buzzing over his land and unsettling his herd, not to mention his poorly mother, that he let off both barrels of his shotgun at a low-flying biplane, narrowly missing the pilot, who was on his honeymoon.
Reed was arrested and taken to court, where he told the magistrate that the planes flew so low they took the heads off his red-hot pokers. Reed was supported in court by his friend, the celebrated artist Augustus John, who lived a few miles away at Alderney Manor. His testimony obviously held some weight as the farmer was found not guilty and discharged. The Bournemouth Times & Directory correspondent opined that, ‘Whilst shooting at planes is to be deprecated…any vulgar-minded aeronaut is now suffered to fly his noisy, menacing machine over the town.’ It may have had nothing to do with the noise and the menace, but a short time later Augustus John moved to Fordingbridge.

Major L P Openshaw's Westland Widgeon passes in front of the Ensbury Park grandstand, just moments before he was fatally injured crashing into another plane on 6 June 1927

Not surprisingly, the races brought a string of accidents and while Reed’s shotgun failed to take down the maverick airman on that particular show day, the dangers of racing planes were brought home during the third meeting, at Whitsun 1927, an event that was to be the swansong of racing in the town. It began badly on the first morning of 4 June when a DH37, G-EBDO, piloted by Major H Hemming, hit the scoreboard on take-off and crashed into the enclosures. The pilot was severely injured and the passenger, Mr St John-Plevins, died. Astonishingly, the event went ahead, but there was more tragedy to come on 6 June when two planes collided near West Parley, killing both pilots. Ironically, one was the same pilot who had been previously shot at by Trelawney Reed.
This meeting was the largest of its kind ever to have been held in Britain, but the tragedies spelled the end for Ensbury Park Racecourse Ltd and it went into liquidation the following year. By 1930 all racing – plane, horse or otherwise – had ended and within two years much of the land was a housing development new roads built included Leybourne Road and Western Avenue, upon which the main grandstand had once proudly stood. The last part of the old racecourse was built over near Gillam Road and a new road was created. Its name? Etches Close.


Vaata videot: National Aviation Day 1932-1935