Veerud, Amphipolis

Veerud, Amphipolis


Amphipolise sõjaline dekreet

The Amphipolise sõjaline dekreet (u 200 eKr) on Makedoonia kreekakeelne kiri kahest marmorplokist, mis sisaldasid algselt vähemalt kolme teksti veergu. See säilitab nimekirja eeskirjadest, mis reguleerivad Makedoonia armee käitumist ja distsipliini laagris.

τοὺς μὴ φέροντας τι τῶν καθηκόντων αὐτοῖς ὅπλων ζημιούτωσαν κατά τα γεγραμμένα · κοτθύβου ὀβολοὺς δύο, κώνου τὸ ἴσον, σαρίσης ὀβολοὺς τρεῖς, μαχαίρας τὸ ἴσον, κνημίδων ὀβολοὺς δύο, ἀσπίδος δραχμήν. Πὶ δὲ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τῶν τε δεδηλωμένων ὅπλων τὸ διπλοῦν καὶ θώρακος δραχμὰς δύο, ἡμιθωρακίου δραχμ Λαμβανέτωσαν δὲ τὴν ζημίαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχυ [πηρέτ] αι, παραδείξαντες τῶι βασιλεῖ τοὺ

need, kes ei kanna neile sobivaid relvi, trahvitakse vastavalt eeskirjadele: kotthybos, kaks oboli, sama summa konos, kolm oboli jaoks sarissa, sama ka makhaira, jaoks knemides kaks oboli, jaoks aspis drahma. Hegemoonide (ohvitseride) puhul kahekordne nimetatud relvade jaoks, kaks drahmat rindkere, drahma hemitorakioon. Sekretärid (grammateis) ja peaassistendid (archyperetai) määrab karistuse pärast seda, kui on üleastujatele kuningale teatanud (basileus)

Muud mainitud sõjalised terminid on järgmised: efodos (kontrollpatrull), ekkoition ("voodist väljas", LSJ: öövalve), stegnopoiia (kasarmute ehitamine), skenopoiia (telkide valmistamine), phragmos (tara sisse), diastaas, phylax (valvur), hüpaspitsid, parembool, stratopedon (laager), speirarch (Speira ülem), tetrarh ja strateegia.

  • Amphipolis - u. 200 eKr Meletemata 22, Epig. Rakendus 12 SEG 40,524
  • Arhailine ja klassikaline Kreeka Michael Hewson Crawford, David Whitehead Page 596 ISBN0-19-284202-1
  • Hellenistlik ajastu Ipsose lahingust Kleopatra VII surmani. Stanley Mayer Burstein Page 88 0-521-28158-X
  • Makedoonia sõdalase Aleksandri eliitjalaväelane Waldemar Heckel, Ryan Jones, Christa Hook Page 24 1-84176-950-9

See Vana -Kreekaga seotud artikkel on tükk. Saate Vikipeediat aidata, laiendades seda.

See sõjaajaloo artikkel on nõme. Saate Vikipeediat aidata, laiendades seda.


Amphipolise väljakaevamised

Kaevamiste jada on avastanud ümbermõõdu seina, mida tuntakse kui peribolos, mille pikkus on üle poole kilomeetri ja mis on valmistatud peenemast marmorist. Cist -haua olemasolu viimase kambri põranda all ja inimjäänuste väljakaevamine selle iidselt häiritud kaevikus kinnitab selgelt künka staatust matmise mälestusmärgina. Selle mälestusmärgi tohutu ulatus ja selle kaunistamise ülivõrdes kvaliteet sunnivad arvama, et haual viibija oli ülimalt tähtis isik. Mitmed ahelad tõendavad matmist kindlalt neljanda sajandi viimase veerandi eKr vahetult pärast Aleksandri enda surma aastal 323 eKr.


Sisu

Nimi Makedoonia tuleneb kreeka keelest: Μακεδονία ( Makedoonia ), [15] [16] kuningriik (hiljem piirkond), mis sai nime muistsete makedoonlaste järgi, kes olid pronksiaegse kreeka hõimu järeltulijad. [17] Nende nimi, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), on suguluses Vana -Kreeka omadussõnaga μᾰκεδνός (makednós), mis tähendab "pikk, sale". [16] See on traditsiooniliselt tuletatud indoeuroopa tüvest *meh₂ḱ-, mis tähendab 'pikk' või 'sihvakas'. Keeleteadlane Robert S. P. Beekes toetab ideed, et mõlemad terminid on Kreeka-eelse substraadi päritolu ja neid ei saa seletada indoeuroopa morfoloogiaga. [18] Kuid Beekese seisukohad ei ole peavoolud ja De Decker väidab, et tema argumendid on ebapiisavad. [19] Piirkonda on ajalooliselt tuntud ka kui Македония (Makedonija) bulgaaria keeles ja kohalikus lõunaslaavi murdes, Makedonya türgi keeles ja Makedoonia aromaani keeles. Makedoonia on ka piirkonna nimi Megleno-rumeenia keeles.

Muinasaja redigeerimine

Makedoonia on inimarengu ristteel Egeuse mere ja Balkani vahel. Varasemad märgid inimasustusest pärinevad paleoliitikumiperioodist, eriti Petralona koopast, kus leiti Euroopa vanim veel teadaolev humanoid. Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. Hilisneoliitikumi perioodil (u 4500–3500 eKr) toimus kaubandus üsna kaugete piirkondadega, mis viitab kiiretele sotsiaalmajanduslikele muutustele. Üks olulisemaid uuendusi oli vase töötamise alustamine.

Muinasajalugu Muuda

Herodotose sõnul sai Makedoonia ajalugu alguse sellest, et Makednoi hõim, kes kasutas seda nime esimeste seas, rändas piirkonda lõunast Histiaeotisest. Seal elasid nad traakia hõimude, näiteks Bryges'i lähedal, kes lahkusid hiljem Makedooniast Väike -Aasiasse ja said tuntuks kui friigid. Makedoonia sai nime Makednoi järgi. Teiste toponüümide, näiteks Emathia, kontosid on kinnitatud, et neid kasutati enne seda. Herodotos väidab, et Makedoonia haru tungis Lõuna -Kreekasse teise aastatuhande lõpus e.m.a. Peloponnesosele jõudes nimetati sissetungijad ümber Doriaanideks, mis käivitasid Doriani sissetungi. Makedoonia hõimud olid sajandeid organiseeritud sõltumatutes kuningriikides, praeguses Kesk -Makedoonias, ja nende roll Kreeka sisepoliitikas oli minimaalne isegi enne Ateena tõusu. Makedoonlased väitsid end olevat dooria kreeklased (argiivsed kreeklased) ja rannikualadel oli palju joonialasi. Ülejäänud piirkonnas elasid erinevad traakia ja illüüria hõimud, aga ka peamiselt teiste Kreeka osariikide rannikukolooniad, nagu Amphipolis, Olynthos, Potidea, Stageira ja paljud teised, ning põhja pool elas teine ​​hõim, keda kutsuti Paeoniansiks. 6. sajandi lõpul ja 5. sajandi alguses eKr sattus piirkond Pärsia võimu alla kuni Xerxese hävitamiseni Plataeas. Peloponnesose sõja ajal sai Makedooniast Peloponnesose Liiga ja ateenlaste paljude sõjategevuse teater ning seal nähti Thracydidese sõnul traaklaste ja illüürlaste pealetungi. Paljud Makedoonia linnad olid liitunud spartalastega (nii spartalased kui ka makedoonlased olid doorialased, ateenlased aga joonialased), kuid Ateena säilitas Amphipolise koloonia aastaid tema kontrolli all. Makedoonia kuningriigi reorganiseeris Filippus II ja saavutas Kreeka riikide liidu, moodustades Korintose Liiga. Pärast tema mõrva astus tema poeg Aleksander Makedoonia troonile ja Heintoni tiitli kandmine Korintose Liigas alustas oma pikka kampaaniat ida suunas. Pärast Aleksander Suure surma ja Diadochi sõdu oli Makedoonia võimas hellenistliku Kreeka riik.

Rooma periood ja Bütsantsi algusaeg Muuda

Makedoonia jäi tähtsaks ja võimsaks kuningriigiks kuni Pydna lahinguni (22. juuni 168 eKr), kus Rooma kindral Aemilius Paulus alistas Makedoonia kuninga Perseuse, lõpetades Antigonidide dünastia valitsemisaja Makedoonia üle. Lühikeseks ajaks loodi Makedoonia vabariik nimega "Makedoonia Koinon". Roomlased jagasid selle neljaks haldusringkonnaks lootuses, et see muudab mässud raskemaks, kuid see manööver ebaõnnestus. Siis 148 eKr annekteerisid roomlased Makedoonia täielikult. [20] Sel ajal lõppes põhjapiir Ohridi järve ja Paeoni linna Bylazoraga tänapäevase Velesi linna lähedal. Esimesel sajandil pKr kirjutas Strabo Makedoonia piiri Lychnidose, [21] Bütsantsi Achrise ja praegu Ochridi piirile. Seetõttu ei ulatunud Vana -Makedoonia praegustest piiridest kaugemale (Kreekas). Idas lõppes Makedoonia Straboni järgi Strymoni jõe ääres, kuigi ta mainib, et teised kirjanikud paigutasid Makedoonia piiri Traakiaga Nestose jõe äärde [22], mis on ka praegune geograafiline piir kahe Kreeka halduspiirkonna vahel.

Apostlite tegudes (Apostlite teod 16: 9–10) on kirjas nägemus, milles apostel Paulus olevat näinud „Makedoonia meest”, kes palub teda, öeldes: „Tulge Makedooniasse ja aidake meid”. Lõigus on kirjas, et Paulus ja tema kaaslased reageerisid kutsele kohe.

Seejärel liideti Epeirose ja Thessalia provintsid ning teised põhjapoolsed piirkonnad uueks Provintsia Makedooniaks, kuid 297. aastal pKr Diocletianuse reformi käigus eemaldati paljud neist piirkondadest ja loodi kaks uut provintsi: Makedoonia Prima ja Makedoonia Salutaris ( 479–482 pKr Makedoonia Secunda). Makedoonia Prima langes ligikaudu kokku Strabo määratlusega Makedooniast ja Kreeka kaasaegse halduspiirkonnaga [20] ning selle pealinn oli Thessaloniki, Makedoonia Salutaris aga Peeoonia linn Stobi (Gradsko lähedal). Seda alajaotust mainitakse Hieroclese sünekdemonis (527–528) ja see püsis keiser Justinianuse ajal.

Slaavi, avara, bulgaaria ja ungari sissetung 6. – 7. Sajandil laastas mõlemat provintsi [23], vaid ainult Makedoonia osad Prima rannikualadel ja Traakia lähemal jäi Bütsantsi kätte, samas kui suurem osa sisemaast oli Bütsantsi ja Bulgaaria. Bütsantsi kontrolli all olnud Makedoonia piirkonnad läksid Makedoonia turma all Traakia provintsi.

Keskaja ajalugu Muuda

Uus haldussüsteem võeti kasutusele aastatel 789–802 pKr, pärast Bütsantsi impeeriumi taastumist nendest sissetungidest. Uus süsteem põhines haldusjaotustel nimega Themata. Makedoonia Prima piirkond (tänapäevase Kreeka halduspiirkonna Makedoonia territoorium) jagati Thessaloniki ja Strymoni teema vahel, nii et ainult selle piirkonna piirkond, mis asub Nestost ida suunas, kandis jätkuvalt Makedoonia nime. Makedoonia teema või teema "Makedoonia Traakias". Traakias asuva Makedoonia Teema pealinn oli Adrianoopolis. [24] [25] [26]

Piirkonna slaavi elemendi tundmine viis kaks venda Thessalonikist, pühakute Cyriluse ja Methodiuse, kes olid valitud slaavlaste ristiusku pööramiseks. Pärast Basil II kampaaniaid naasis kogu Makedoonia Bütsantsi osariiki. Pärast neljandat ristisõda 1203–1204 loodi selles piirkonnas lühiajaline ristisõdijate ala, Tessaloonika kuningriik. Selle alistas Kreeka Epeirose despotaadi kaasasutaja Theodore Komnenos Doukas 1224. aastal, kui Kreeka Makedoonia ja Thessaloniki linn olid lühiajalise Tessaloonika impeeriumi keskmes. Naastes varsti pärast seda taastatud Bütsantsi impeeriumi juurde, jäi Kreeka Makedoonia Bütsantsi kätte kuni 1340. aastateni, mil Serbia valitseja Stefan Dušan vallutas kogu Makedoonia (välja arvatud Thessaloniki ja võib -olla ka Veria). [27] Pärast Maritsa lahingut (1371) taastati idapiirkondades, sealhulgas Serres, Bütsantsi valitsemine. 1380ndatel vallutasid piirkonna järk -järgult edenevad osmanid, Serres pidas vastu kuni 1383. aastani ja Thessaloniki kuni 1387. Pärast lühikest Bütsantsi vaheaega aastatel 1403–1430 (viimase seitsme aasta jooksul anti linn linnale üle) Veneetslased), Thessaloniki ja selle lähiümbrus naasid Osmanite kätte. [28]

Osmanite reegel Muuda

Thessaloniki vallutamine 1430 ajas Bütsantsi maailma hämmingusse, seda peeti õigesti Konstantinoopoli langemise eellugu. Mälestus sündmusest on säilinud fakte ja müüte sisaldavate rahvatraditsioonide kaudu. Apostolos Vacalopoulos salvestab järgmise Thessaloniki vallutamisega seotud Türgi traditsiooni: [30]

"Sel ajal, kui Murad magas oma palees Jenitsas, räägib lugu, et Jumal ilmus talle unes ja kinkis talle lõhnava roosi lõhna. Sultan oli selle ilust nii hämmastunud, et palus Jumalat Jumal vastas: "See roos, Murad, on Tessaloonika. Tea, et selle nautimine on sulle taeva poolt antud. Ärge raisake aega, minge ja võtke see ". Selle Jumala manitsuse täitmisel marssis Murad Tessaloonika vastu ja, nagu on kirjutatud, vallutas selle."

Thessalonikist sai Osmanite administratsiooni keskus Balkanil. Kui enamikku Makedooniat valitsesid Osmanid, siis Athose mäel eksisteeris kloostrikogukond autonoomses seisundis. Ülejäänud Chalkidiki poolsaarel oli ka autonoomne staatus: "Mademochoria koinoni" juhtis kohalikult määratud nõukogu, kuna selle piirkonna kulla- ja hõbedakaevandustest saadi privileegid, mis saadi tema rikkuse tõttu.

Kaasaegne ajalugu Redigeeri

Makedoonias toimus Osmanite võimu ajal mitu ülestõusu, sealhulgas ülestõus pärast Lepanto lahingut, mis lõppes Kreeka elanike veresaunadega, ülestõus Naousas armatolos Zisis Karademos aastal 1705, mäss Grevena piirkonnas Klepti nimel. Ziakas (1730–1810). Emmanuel Pappas Kreeka iseseisvusdeklaratsioon Makedoonias 1821. aastal, Kreeka Vabadussõja ajal. Mäss levis Kesk -Makedooniast Lääne -Makedooniasse. 1821. aasta sügisel saadeti Nikolaos Kasomoulis "Kagu-Makedoonia esindajana" Lõuna-Kreekasse ja kohtus Demetrius Ypsilantisega. 1822. aasta alguses korraldasid Anastasios Karatasos ja Aggelis Gatsos kohtumise teistega armatoloi ja otsustas, et ülestõus peaks põhinema kolmel linnal: Naoussa, Kastania ja Siatista. [31] 1854. aastal juhtis kleft Ziaka poeg Theodoros Ziakas koos Dimitrios Karatasosega, kes oli 1821. aastal Naousa piiramisel kaptenite seas, järjekordse ülestõusu Lääne -Makedoonias, mida on rikkalikult mälestatud kreeka rahvalaulus.

Kreeka jõupingutuste tugevdamiseks Makedoonia nimel moodustati 1903. aastal Kreeka Makedoonia komitee Dimitrios Kalapothakise juhtimisel, kuhu kuulusid Ion Dragoumis ja Pavlos Melas. [32] Selle võitlejaid tunti kui Makedonomachoi ("Makedoonia võitlejad"). [33] Kreeka aitas Makedoonial vastu seista nii Osmanite kui ka Bulgaaria vägedele, saates sõjaväeohvitsere, kes moodustasid makedoonlastest ja teistest Kreeka vabatahtlikest koosnevad bändid, mille tulemuseks oli Makedoonia võitlus aastatel 1904–1908, mis lõppes Noorte Türgi revolutsiooniga. . [34] [35] Makedoonlased võitlesid Makedoonia eest võitlemise ajal koos Kreeka regulaarse armeega. Makedoonias on mälestusmärke Makedonomachi, kohalikud Makedoonia ja teised Kreeka võitlejad, kes võtsid osa sõdadest ja surid Makedoonia Ottomani võimu alt vabastamiseks, mälestati ametlikult kangelastena. [36] [37]

Kreeka sai piirkonna lõunaosad (koos Thessalonikiga), mis vastas Kreeka ajaloo osaks omistatud Vana -Makedoonia omale ja millel oli tugev Kreeka kohalolek, [34] pärast esimest Balkani sõda Ottomani impeeriumist ja laiendas oma osa aastal teises Balkani sõjas Bulgaaria vastu. Kreeka Makedoonia piirid viidi lõpule Bukaresti lepinguga. Esimeses maailmasõjas sai Makedooniast lahinguväli. Kreeka peaminister Eleftherios Venizelos pooldas sõtta astumist Entente poolel, sakslaste kuningas Constantinus I aga neutraalsust. Venizelose kutsel maabusid liitlased sügisel 1915 Thessalonikis väed, et aidata Serbiat sõjas Austria-Ungari ja Bulgaaria vastu, kuid nende sekkumine tuli liiga hilja, et vältida Serbia kokkuvarisemist. Loodi Makedoonia rinne, mille keskmes oli Thessaloniki, samal ajal kui 1916. aasta suvel võtsid bulgaarlased Kreeka Ida -Makedoonia ilma vastuseisuta üle. See kutsus Thessalonikis esile Venizelist-meelsete ohvitseride seas sõjalise ülestõusu, mille tulemusel loodi linnas "Ajutine riigikaitse valitsus" eesotsas Venizelosega, kes astus koos liitlastega sõtta. Pärast intensiivseid diplomaatilisi läbirääkimisi ja relvastatud vastasseisu Ateenas Entente ja kuninglike jõudude vahel loobus kuningas troonist ja tema asemele asus tema teine ​​poeg Aleksander. Venizelos naasis Ateenasse juunis 1917 ja nüüd ühinenud Kreeka ühines ametlikult sõdaga liitlaste poolel.

Teises maailmasõjas okupeeris Makedoonia telg (1941–44), Saksamaa vallutas Lääne- ja Kesk -Makedoonia, Thessaloniki ja Bulgaaria okupeerisid ja annekteerisid Makedoonia idaosa.

19. sajandi alguses identifitseerisid slaavi talupojad end nende perekonda, külla või kohalikku piirkonda kuulumise alusel või kui „rummiporss”, s.t Kreeka domineeriva õigeusu kristlaste kogukonna liikmed. Makedoonia slaavlased viitasid üldiselt iseendale ja olid tuntud kui "bulgaarlased". 19. sajandi keskpaigaks kogesid Makedoonia talurahvakogukonnad Ottomani impeeriumis sügavaid lõhesid koos natsionalismi tõusuga. Sellest ajast alates on slaavi keelt kõnelevad kogukonnad Põhja -Kreeka jagunes kaheks vaenulikuks ja vastandlikuks rühmituseks, millel oli kaks erinevat rahvuslikku identiteeti - kreeka ja bulgaaria. [38] Teiseks maailmasõjaks ja pärast Bulgaaria lüüasaamist toimus slaavi rühmituste vahel veel üks lõhe. Konservatiivid lahkusid koos okupeeriva Bulgaariaga Armee Bulgaariasse. Makedoonlasteks (slaavi keel) identifitseerunud vasakpoolsed liitusid Kreeka kommunistide domineeriva mässuliste demokraatliku armeega. Kreeka kodusõja lõppedes (1946–49) evakueeris enamik slaavi päritolu makedoonlasi Kreeka Kommunistlik Partei ning sunnitud põgenema Jugoslaavia Sotsialistlikku Makedoonia Vabariiki ja teistesse Ida- ja Kesk -Euroopa riikidesse. [39] Mõned emigreerusid ka Kanadasse, Austraaliasse ja Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. [40] Praegused Kreeka seadused keelavad endiselt makedoonlaste omandi tagasipöördumise ja tagastamise, mis ei ole päritolult kreeka. [41]

Makedoonia on Kreeka suurim ja rahvaarvult teine ​​piirkond. Maastikku iseloomustab mitmekesisus, sest Lääne- ja Ida-Makedoonia on mägine, välja arvatud mõned viljakad orud, samas kui Kreeka suurim Thessaloniki-Giannitsa tasandik asub Kesk-Makedoonias. Olümpose mägi, Kreeka kõrgeim mägi, asub Olümpose ahelikul Tesalia ja Makedoonia piiril, Pieria ja Larissa piirkondlike üksuste vahel, umbes 80 km (50 miili) Thessalonikist edelas. Mõned teised mäeahelikud on Vermio mäed, Pieriani mäed, Vorase mäed. Makedoonia saared on Thasos, mis asub Ida -Makedoonia ranniku ja Kavala sadama vastas, ja Ammouliani, Kesk -Makedoonia ranniku vastas, Chalkidiki. Haliacmon, mis voolab läbi Kastoria, Grevena, Kozani, Imathia ja Pieria piirkondlike üksuste, on Kreeka pikim jõgi. Mõned teised jõed on Axios (Vardar), Strymonas, Loudias.

Alates 1987. aastast on Makedoonia jagatud kolmeks piirkonnaks (kreeka keeles περιφέρειες). Need on Lääne -Makedoonia, Kesk -Makedoonia ja Ida -Makedoonia, mis on osa Ida -Makedoonia ja Traakia piirkonnast. Need kolm piirkonda on jagatud 14 piirkondlikuks üksuseks (περιφερειακές ενότητες), mis omakorda jagunevad omakorda omavalitsusteks (δήμοι - umbes samaväärsed Briti šiiride või Ameerika linnadega). Neid juhib siseministeerium, samas kui Makedoonia ja Traakia aseminister vastutab valitsuse poliitika koordineerimise ja rakendamise eest kõigis kolmes Makedoonia piirkonnas. [42] Enne 1987. aastat oli Makedoonia üks haldus- ja geograafiline üksus.

Valitakse erinevate haldusüksuste juhid. Viimased Kreeka kohalikud valimised toimusid 2014. aastal ja Apostolos Tzitzikostas valiti Kesk -Makedoonia piirkonna kuberneriks, Giorgos Pavlidis Ida -Makedoonias ja Traakias ning Theodoros Karypidis Lääne -Makedoonias. Tzitzikostas ja Pavlidis on paremtsentristliku Uue Demokraatia partei liikmed, samas kui Karypidis on sõltumatu. Valimised toimuvad kahe vooru süsteemis, kus kaks enim hääli saanud kandidaati on teises voorus vastamisi, kui kellelgi pole õnnestunud esimeses voorus saada enam kui 50% häältest. Sel viisil valitakse ka piirkondlikud nõukogud, linnapead ja muud ametnikud. Järgmised kohalikud valimised toimuvad 2019. aastal. Makedoonia ja Traakia aseminister ei ole valitud ametikoht, vaid määratakse ametisse Kreeka peaministri rõõmuks. Praegune aseminister Kyriakos Mitsotakise kabinetis on Stavros Kalafatis [el], uus demokraatia. Kreeka erinevad piirkonnad on samuti Kreeka parlamendi valimisringkonnad ning Makedoonia on esindatud oma 66 parlamendiliikme kaudu. [43] Thessaloniki jaguneb kaheks valimisringkonnaks - Thessaloniki A ja Thessaloniki B, samas kui Grevena on väikseim vaid 1 mandaadiga valimisringkond. [43] Thessaloniki A on Kreeka suuruselt teine ​​valimisringkond, kus on 16 saadikut. [43]

Makedoonia piirneb lõunas naabruses asuvate Kreeka piirkondadega Tessaalia, idas Traakia (osa Ida -Makedooniast ja Traakiast) ja läänes Epeiros. See hõlmab ka Athose mäe autonoomset kloostririiki, mis on keskajast alates olnud religioosse pühapaigana. Athose mägi kuulub Konstantinoopoli oikumeenilise patriarhaadi vaimsele jurisdiktsioonile ja on naistele kättesaamatu, selle eest karistatakse vangistusega kuni kaheteistkümne kuuni. [44] Euroopa Parlament on seda kritiseerinud. [44] Athose mäe territoorium on Kreeka isevalitsev osa ja riigi volitusi teostatakse välisministeeriumi määratud kuberneri kaudu. Euroopa Liit võtab seda eristaatust arvesse, eriti maksuvabastuse ja paigaldusõiguse küsimustes. [45] Makedoonia piirneb loodes Albaania suveräänsete riikidega, põhjas Põhja-Makedooniaga ja kirdes Bulgaariaga. Allolev tabel on lühike loetelu Makedoonia erinevatest allüksustest:

Makedoonia kaart Alajaotused 2011. aasta seisuga [värskendus] Kapital Piirkond Rahvaarv [46]
Lääne -Makedoonia Kozani 9 451 km 2 283,689
1. Kastoria Kastoria 1720 km 2 50,322
2. Florina Florina 1924 km 2 51,414
3. Kozani Kozani 3516 km 2 150,196
4. Grevena Grevena 2291 km 2 31,757
Kesk -Makedoonia Thessaloniki 18 811 km 2 1,882,108
5. Pella Edessa 2.506 km 2 139,680
6. Imathia Veria 1 701 km 2 140,611
7. Pieria Katerini 1516 km 2 126,698
8. Kilkis Kilkis 2519 km 2 80,419
9. Thessaloniki Thessaloniki 3683 km 2 1,110,551
10. Chalkidiki Polügüros 2918 km 2 105,908
11. Serres Serres 3.968 km 2 176,430
Ida -Makedoonia
(Osa Ida -Makedooniast ja Traakiast)
Kavala 5579 km 2 238,785
12. Draama Draama 3 468 km 2 98,287
13. Kavala Kavala 1728 km 2 124,917
14. Thasos Thasos 379 km 2 13,770
15. Athose mägi (autonoomne) Karyes 336 km 2 1,811
Makedoonia (kokku) Thessaloniki 34 177 km 2 2,406,393

Makedoonia sisemajanduse koguprodukt saavutas tipptaseme 41,99 miljardi euro (47,44 miljardi dollari) nominaalväärtuses ja 46,87 miljardi euro (52,95 miljardi dollari) ostujõu pariteedi vahetult enne 2008. aasta suurt majanduslangust [4], mis on sellest ajast saadik langenud madalaimale tasemele. 2015. aastal Kreeka valitsussektori võlakriisi ajal 30,85 miljardi euroni (34,85 miljardit dollarit) ja 38,17 miljardi euroni (43,12 miljardit dollarit) [4], vähenedes 26,5%. Kreeka väljus 2009. aastal alanud majanduslangusest 2016. aastal, kuid selle aasta andmed pole kogu Makedoonia kohta kättesaadavad. Kesk -Makedoonia kasvas sel aastal reaalselt 0,57% 23,85 miljardi euroni (26,94 miljardi dollarini), samas kui Lääne -Makedoonia kahanes 10,6% võrra 3,85 miljardi euroni (4,35 miljardit dollarit). [4] Peaaegu pool majandusest, 49%, on keskendunud Thessaloniki piirkondlikule üksusele, [4] mis jäi 2015. aastal majanduslangusesse, vähenedes 0,4%. [4]

Majanduslangus mõjutas piirkonna sissetulekut elaniku kohta, eriti võrreldes Euroopa Liidu keskmisega. Suurima sissetulekuga elaniku kohta Lääne -Makedoonias langes see 2008. aasta 83 protsendilt ELi keskmiselt 59 protsendile 2016. aastal. [4] Makedoonia sissetulek inimese kohta oli 2015. aastal nominaalselt 12 900 eurot ja ostes 15 900 eurot. võimu terminid. [4] [47] Makedoonia majandus põhineb peamiselt teenustel ja teenused moodustavad 2015. aastal 16,46 miljardit eurot (60,4%) piirkonna kogulisandväärtusest. [48] Tööstus- ja põllumajandussektorid andsid oma panuse 9,06 miljardit eurot (33,3%) ja vastavalt 1,72 miljardit eurot (6,3%). [48] ​​Piirkondlik tööjõud töötas sarnaselt enamasti teeninduses (60,4%), kusjuures tööstus ja põllumajandus moodustasid 25,6% ja 14,0% tööjõust. [49]

Makedoonias on Kreeka rikkaim põllumaa [2] ja see piirkond moodustab 9859 ruutkilomeetrit (3 807 ruutmeetrit) riigi põllumajandusmaast (30% kogu pindalast). [50] Makedoonia põllumajandustootmises on ajalooliselt domineerinud tubakas, kusjuures sularaha kasvatatakse selle väärtuse tõttu suures koguses. Kesk- ja Lääne -Makedoonia toodavad endiselt 41% Kreeka tubakatoodangust, kuid see moodustab vaid 1,4% nende piirkondade põllumajandustoodangu väärtusest. [51] Tänapäeval on piirkondlik põllumajandus keskendunud teravilja-, puuvilja- ja tööstuskultuuridele. Üldiselt moodustavad Kesk- ja Lääne -Makedoonia 25% Kreeka põllumajandustoodete väärtusest (sh 41% puuviljadest ja 43% teraviljast). [51] Kreeka valitsus käivitas 2019. aastal Makedoonias toodetud toodete kaubamärgi „Makedoonia GReat“. [52]

Euroopa Liit peab 2014. – 2020. Aasta rahastamistsükli jooksul enamikku Makedooniast liidu vähem arenenud piirkonnaks, [53] ja seega on piirkond viimastel aastatel saanud kasu mitmetest Kreeka valitsuse ja EL. Nende hulka kuulusid kiirtee Egnatia Odos (5,93 miljardit eurot) [54] ja Thessaloniki metroo (1,85 miljardit eurot) [55], samal ajal kui raudteevõrk on osaliselt elektrifitseeritud, mis võimaldab Thessalonikit suure kiirusega Ateenaga 3,5 tunniga ühendada. raudtee. [56] Thessaloniki äärelinnaraudtee ühendab piirkonna pealinna Lääne -Makedoonia Florina ja Thessalia Larissaga. Thessaloniki lennujaam on riigi suuruselt kolmas, [57] ning Ateena – Thessaloniki lennuliin oli 2016. aastal ELi kümnendal kohal. [58] Makedoonia kolm muud lennujaama on Kavala lennujaam, Kozani lennujaam ja Kastoria lennujaam, mis on kaks kõige aktiivsemat lennujaama. , Thessaloniki ja Kavala, opereerib Fraport. [59] Thessaloniki sadam on Kreeka riigisiseste kaubavedude suuruselt teine ​​ja rahvusvaheliste kaubavedude suuruselt neljas, [60] [61] samas kui Kavala on Makedoonia teine ​​suurem sadam.

Makedoonia, mis on ELi liikmesriigi piiriala, saab kasu ELi programmidest, mis edendavad piiriülest majanduskoostööd nii liidu liikmete (Bulgaaria) [62] kui ka ELi kandidaadi Põhja-Makedoonia Vabariigi [63] vahel. riik ja Albaania. [64] EL investeeris nendesse kolme programmi 2014–2020 rahastamistsükli jooksul 210 miljonit eurot (237,24 miljonit dollarit). [62] [63] [64] 10 miljardi euro (11,3 miljardi dollari) suurune Egnatia raudtee, mis läbib Makedooniat ja ühendab Lääne -Traakias asuva Alexandroupoli Epiiruses asuva Igoumenitsaga, esitati Euroopa Komisjonile 2017. aastal, kuid kavandatakse alles kavandatava alguskuupäevaga 2019. [65] Kui 565 km (351 miili) [65] raudteeliin valmib, on see Euroopa suurim raudtee megaprojekt. [66]

Kesk -Makedoonia on Kreeka kõige populaarsem turismisihtkoht, mis ei ole saar, ja kokkuvõttes neljas, edestades kõiki teisi Kreeka mandri piirkondi 9,7 miljoni ööbimisega 2017. aastal. [14] Ida -Makedoonias peeti veel 2,1 miljonit inimest ja Traakia ning 294 tuhat Lääne -Makedoonias. [14]

Makedoonia on mitmekesine piirkond, mis võimaldab tal teenindada erinevaid turismiliike. [67] Chalkidiki poolsaar on Makedoonia populaarseim ranna sihtkoht, mis ühendab 550 kilomeetrit (340 miili) liivarandu tihedate metsadega. [67] Makedoonias oli 2018. aastal 116 sinise lipuga randa, millest 85 olid Chalkidikis. [68] Lisaks oli piirkonnas kolm sinilipu jahisadamat ja üks säästva paaditurismi korraldaja. [68] Kavala on Põhja-Kreeka oluline majanduskeskus, kaubanduse, turismi, kalapüügi ja naftaga seotud tegevuse keskus. Pieria ühendab endas ulatuslikud tasandikud, kõrged mäed ja liivarannad ning piirkonna ilu annab sellele suure potentsiaali turismi edasiseks arenguks. Veel üks turismisihtkoht on Ida -Makedoonia ranniku lähedal asuv Thasose saar. Chalkidiki on koduks Athose mäele, mis on oluline usuturismi keskus. Mägine interjöör võimaldab matkamist ja seiklussporti, [69] samas kui talvekuudel tegutsevad ka suusakuurordid nagu Vasilitsa. [70] Makedoonia on koduks neljale Kreeka 18 UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse. Verginat tuntakse kõige paremini iidse Aigai alana (,γαί, Aigaí, Ladina keeles: Aegae), Makedoonia esimene pealinn. Aigaile on antud UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistu staatus. Aastal 336 eKr mõrvati Philip II II Aigai teatris ja tema poeg Aleksander Suur kuulutati kuningaks. Kõige olulisemad hiljutised leiud tehti 1977. aastal, kui leiti mitme Makedoonia kuninga matmispaik, sealhulgas Makedoonia Philip II haud. See on ka ulatusliku kuningliku palee koht. Vergina arheoloogiamuuseum ehitati kõigi kohapeal leitud esemete majutamiseks ja see on üks olulisemaid muuseume Kreekas. Pella, mis asendas Aigai Makedoonia pealinnana neljandal sajandil eKr, asub samuti Kesk -Makedoonias, samuti Dion Pierias ja Amphipolises. Makedoonia idaosas asuv Philippi on veel üks UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistus. [71] Need on kultuuriturismi jaoks olulised poolused. [69] Thessalonikis asuvad arvukad märkimisväärsed Bütsantsi monumendid, sealhulgas UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse kuuluva Thessaloniki paleokristlikud ja bütsantsi monumendid, aga ka mitmed Rooma, Ottomani ja Sefardi juudi struktuurid. Lisaks Makedoonia kultuurikeskusele on Thessaloniki ka linnaturismi ja gastronoomia keskus. [69] Makedoonia on koduks ka erinevatele järvede ja märgalade turismisihtkohtadele. [70]

Religioon Muuda

Kreeka Makedoonia piirkonna peamine religioon on kristlus, enamik elanikkonnast kuulub ida -õigeusu kirikusse. Kristluse algusaegadel sai Thessaloniki toolist Vana -Rooma Makedoonia provintsi metropoliitne piiskopkond. Thessaloniki peapiiskopist sai ühtlasi kogu Ida -Illyricumi kirikupreem ja 535. aastal taandati tema jurisdiktsioon Makedoonia piiskopkonna haldusterritooriumile. 8. sajandil kuulus see Roomast Konstantinoopoli oikumeenilise patriarhi jurisdiktsiooni alla ning jäi Makedoonia ajaloolise piirkonna peamiseks kiriklikuks keskuseks kogu keskaja ja kuni tänapäevani. [72]

Makedoonia köök Muuda

Makedoonia köök on Põhja -Kreeka Makedoonia piirkonna köök. Kaasaegne Kreeka Makedoonia toiduvalmistamine jagab palju üldist Kreeka ja laiemat Balkani ja Vahemere kööki, sealhulgas Ottomani mineviku roogasid. Specific influences include dishes of the Pontic, Aromanian, Armenian and Sephardi Jewish population. The mix of the different people inhabiting the region gave the name to the Macedonian salad. [73]

Macedonian music Edit

Music of Macedonia is the music of the geographic region of Macedonia in Greece, which is a part of the music of whole region of Macedonia. Notable element of the local folk music is the use of trumpets and koudounia (called chálkina in the local dialect).

In 2011 the permanent population of the region stood at 2,406,393 residents, [46] a decrease from 2,422,533 in 2001. [74] As of 2017, the population of Macedonia is estimated to have further decreased to 2,382,857. [3] In the 2011 Greek census the capital city, Thessaloniki, had an urban population of 824,676, up from 794,330 in 2001, [74] while its metropolitan population increased to over a million. [46] 281,458 people in Macedonia (or 12% of the population) were born in a foreign country, compared to 11.89% for the whole of Greece. [75] 51.32% of the population was female, and 48.68% male. [76] Like the rest of Greece Macedonia is faced with an aging population the largest age group in the region is that of the over 70, at 15.59% of the population, while the 0-9 and 10-19 groups combined made up 20.25% of the population. [76] The largest urban centres in Macedonia in 2011 were:

Demographic history Edit

The inhabitants of Greek Macedonia are nowadays overwhelmingly ethnic Greeks, and most are also Greek Orthodox Christians. From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century, the ethnic composition of the region of Macedonia is characterised by uncertainty both about numbers and identification. The earliest estimation we have is from the Greek consulate of Thessaloniki in 1884, which according to it the nowadays Greek region of Macedonia had 1,073,000 Greeks (Grecophones, Slavophones, Albanophones), 565,000 Muslims, 215,000 Bulgarians and 16,000 Aromanians. [78] The 1904 Ottoman census of Hilmi Pasha people were assigned to ethnicity according which church/language they belonged, it recorded 373,227 Greeks in the vilayet of Selânik (Thessaloniki), 261,283 Greeks in the vilayet of Monastir (Bitola) and 13,452 Greeks in the villayet of Kosovo. [79] Of those 648,962 Greeks by church, 307,000 identified as Greek speakers, while about 250,000 as Slavic speakers and 99,000 as "Vlach" (Aromanian or Megleno-Romanian). [80] [81] However, these figures extend to territories both inside and outside of Greek Macedonia. Hugh Poulton, in his Who Are the Macedonians, notes that "assessing population figures is problematic" [82] for the territory of Greek Macedonia before its incorporation into the Greek state in 1913. [82] The area's remaining population was principally composed of Ottoman Turks (including non-Turkish Muslims of mainly Bulgarian and Greek Macedonian convert origin) and also a sizeable community of mainly Sephardic Jews (centred in Thessaloniki), and smaller numbers of Romani, Albanians, Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians.

When Macedonia was first incorporated in Greece in 1913, however, Greeks were a marginal plurality in the region. [83] The treaties of Neuilly (1919) and Lausanne (1923) mandated a forceful exchange of populations with Bulgaria and Turkey respectively, and some 776,000 Greek refugees (mostly from Turkey) were resettled in Macedonia, [83] displacing 300,000–400,000 non-Greeks who were forced to move as part of the population exchange. [84] The population of ethnic minorities in Macedonia dropped from 48% of the total population in 1920 to 12% in 1928, with the Great Greek Encyclopedia noting in 1934 that those minorities that remained "do not yet possess a Greek national consciousness". [85]

The population of Macedonia was greatly affected by the Second World War, as it was militarily occupied by Nazi Germany while its ally, Bulgaria, annexed eastern Macedonia. Germany administered its occupation zone by implementation of the Nuremberg Laws, [86] which saw some 43,000–49,000 of Thessaloniki's 56,000 Jews exterminated in the Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. [87] [88] [89] In its own zone of annexation, Bulgaria actively persecuted the local Greek population with the help of Bulgarian collaborationists. [90] Further demographic change happened in the aftermath of the Greek Civil War, when many Slavs of Macedonia who fought on the side of the Democratic Army of Greece and fought to separate Greek Macedonia from the rest of Greece under the auspices of Yugoslavia, left Greece. [90] These expatriates were the primary source of ethnic Macedonian irredentism and the appropriation of ancient Macedonian heritage. [91]

Regional identity Edit

Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες , Makedónes [makeˈðones] ) is the term by which ethnic Greeks originating from the region are known. [92] [93] Macedonians came to be of particular importance prior to the Balkan Wars, during the Macedonian Struggle, when they were a minority population inside the multiethnic Ottoman Macedonia. The Macedonians now have a strong regional identity, manifested both in Greece and by emigrant groups in the Greek diaspora. [94] [95] This sense of identity has been highlighted in the context of the Macedonia naming dispute in the aftermath of the break-up of Yugoslavia, in which Greece objected to its northern neighbour calling itself the "Republic of Macedonia". This objection is the direct result of this regional identity, and a matter of heritage for northern Greeks. [96] A characteristic expression of this self-identification was manifested by Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis at a meeting of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in January 2007, declaring that "I myself am a Macedonian, and another two and a half million Greeks are Macedonians". [97]

In the early-to-mid 20th century Greece was invaded by Bulgaria three times with the aim of capturing portions Macedonia [98] during the Second Balkan War, during the First World War, and during the Second World War. Additionally, Nazi Germany had promised Thessaloniki to Yugoslavia as a reward for joining the Axis powers. [99] The perceived existence of a foreign danger had a particularly strong effect on the emergence of a distinct regional identity in Macedonia. [98] The representation of the Macedonian Struggle in Penelope Delta's popular 1937 teen novel Secrets of the Swamp solidified the image of the chauvinist clash between Greeks and Bulgarians in Macedonia in the minds of many Greeks. [100] Bulgaria was specifically mentioned as the enemy in Greek Macedonia's unofficial anthem, Famous Macedonia, the reference only being replaced by vague 'Barbarians' with the normalization of Greco-Bulgarian relations in the 1970s. [98] During the same period, Manolis Andronikos made major archaeological discoveries at Aigai, the first capital of ancient Macedonia, which included the tomb of Phillip II, Alexander the Great's father. [101] His discoveries were drawn upon as evidence of ethnic and cultural links between the ancient Macedonians and southern Greek city-states [101] [93] by Greeks in Macedonia.

The distinct regional identity of Greek Macedonians is also the product of the fact that it was closer to the centres of power in both the Byzantine and Ottoman period, was considered culturally, politically, and strategically more important than other parts of Greece during these two periods, and also the fact that the region had a far more ethnically and religiously diverse population in both the medieval and Ottoman periods. In the late Byzantine period Greek Macedonia had also been the centre of significant Byzantine successor states, such as the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the short-lived state established by the rival Byzantine emperor, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, and - in parts of western Macedonia - the Despotate of Epirus, all of which helped promote a distinct Greek Macedonian identity.

In the contemporary period this is reinforced by Greek Macedonia's proximity to other states in the southern Balkans, the continuing existence of ethnic and religious minorities in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace not found in southern Greece, and the fact that migrants and refugees from elsewhere in the Balkans, southern Russia, and Georgia (including Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks from northeastern Anatolia and the south Caucasus) have usually gravitated to Greek Macedonia rather than southern Greece.

Languages and minorities Edit

Greek is the majority language throughout Greece today, with an estimated 5% of the population speaking a language other than Greek, [102] and is the only language of administration and education in the region. Greek is spoken universally in Greek Macedonia, even in the border regions where there is a strong presence of languages other than Greek. [103] The Greek government exhibits some tolerance toward the use of minority languages, [102] though Greece is one of the countries which has not signed the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages [104] a number of court cases have been brought to the attention of the European Parliament regarding the suppression of minority linguistic rights. [102]

Apart from Standard Modern Greek, a number of other Greek dialects are spoken in Macedonia. This includes Pontic Greek, a language spoken originally on the shores of the Black Sea in northeastern Anatolia and the Caucasus, as well as an archaic Greek dialect indigenous to Greek Macedonia and other parts of Northern Greece known as Sarakatsánika (Greek: Σαρακατσάνικα ). This dialect is spoken by the Sarakatsani, a traditionally transhumant shepherd Greek community whose spoken tongue has undergone very little change through foreign influences. [105]

Macedonia is also home to an array of non-Greek languages. Slavic languages are the most prevalent minority languages in the region, while Aromanian, Arvanitic, Megleno-Romanian, Turkish, and Romani are also spoken. Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, was historically the language of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki, although the Holocaust nearly eradicated the city's previously-vibrant Jewish community of 70,000 to a mere 3,000 individuals today. [106]

The exact size of the linguistic and ethnic minority groups in Macedonia is not known with any degree of scientific accuracy, as Greece has not conducted a census on the question of mother tongue since 1951. Aromanians form a minority population throughout much of Macedonia. They largely identify as Greeks and most belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, many refusing to be called a minority group. [107] In the 1951 census they numbered 39,855 in all Greece (the number in Macedonia proper is unknown). Many Aromanian villages can be found along the slopes of the Vermion Mountains and Mount Olympus. Smaller numbers can be found in the Prespes region and near the Gramos mountains. Megleno-Romanians can be found in the Moglena region of Macedonia. The Megleno-Romanian language is traditionally spoken in the 11 Megleno-Romanian villages spread across Greece and the Republic of North Macedonia, including Archangelos, Notia, Lagkadia, and Skra. They are generally adherents to the Orthodox Church while the former majority in Notia was Muslim. Arvanite communities exist in Serres regional unit, while many can also be found in Thessaloniki. There are three Arvanite villages in the Florina regional unit (Drosopigi, Lechovo and Flampouro) with others located in Kilkis and Thessaloniki regional units. [108] Other minority groups include Armenians and Romani. Romani communities are concentrated mainly around the city of Thessaloniki. An uncertain number of them live in Macedonia from the total of about 200,000–300,000 that live scattered on all the regions of Greece. [109]

Ethnic Macedonian minority and language Edit

The Macedonian language, a member of the South Slavic languages closely related to Bulgarian, is today spoken mostly in the regional units of Florina and Pella. [102] Due to the sensitivity of the use of term 'Macedonian', the language is euphemistically referred to as dópia ( ντόπια , 'local') or nasi (Macedonian: наши or naši , 'our (language)'). [102]

The exact number of the minority is difficult to know as Greece has not collected data on languages as part of its census since 1951. The 1928 census listed 81,984 speakers of 'Slavomacedonian' in Greece, [110] but internal government documents from the 1930s put the number of Macedonian speakers in the Florina prefecture alone at 80,000 or 61% of the population. [111] A field study conducted in 1993 in these two regions under the auspices of the European Parliament found that of the 74 villages studied, Macedonian was spoken in various degrees of vitality in 49 villages and was the primary language in 15 villages. [103] To a lesser extent Macedonian is also present in the regional units of Kastoria, Imathia, Kilkis, Thessaloniki, Serres, and Drama. [102] The Greek language remains dominant in all regions, even in those where Macedonian and other minority languages are present. [103] The total number of 'slavic speakers' in Greece is estimated to range between as low as 10,000 and as high as 300,000. [112] [113] [114]

Greece has had varied policies toward the Macedonian language. In 1925 the Greek government introduced the first Macedonian alphabet book, known as the Abecedar, based on the Florina dialect of the language [111] this never entered classrooms due to opposition from Serbia and Bulgaria, as well as an outcry against it in Greece. [111] Efforts to assimilate resulted in instances of populations rejecting their Slavic language, as in the village of Atropos in 1959, where the villagers took "the oath before God" to cease speaking the local Slavic idiom and to only speak Greek. [111] The Macedonian language has survived despite efforts by Greek authorities to assimilate the population into the Greek majority. The vast number of Macedonian speakers are ethnic Greeks or possess a Greek national consciousness. [102] [115] It is difficult to ascertain the number of those with a different national consciousness, but estimates of the number of people within Greece that possess an ethnic Macedonian national identity range between 5,000–30,000. [115] [112]

Greece claims to respect the human rights of all its citizens, including the rights of individuals to self-identify, but also claims its policy of not recognising an ethnic Macedonian minority is based "on solid legal and factual grounds". [116] However, reports by organisations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the United States Department of State have all concluded that Greek authorities are actively discriminatory against the existence of a Macedonian language, minority, or national identity, [116] [93] [117] even if the situation has improved markedly. [93] An ethnic Macedonian political party, Rainbow, has competed in Greek elections for the European Parliament since 1995. [93] In the 2019 election it received 6,364 votes or 0.11% of the national vote and came 35th in the results table, with most its support coming from Florina where it received 3.33% of the vote. [118]

Jews of Thessaloniki and other cities Edit

Northern Greece has had Jewish communities since ancient times, including the historically-significant and Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era Thessaloniki became the centre of a Sephardi community which comprised more than half the city's population, as Ottoman authorities invited Jews who had been expelled from Castille in the aftermath of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 to resettle in the Ottoman Empire. The community nicknamed the city la madre de Israel (the mother of Israel) [119] and Jerusalem of the Balkans, [120] and brought with it the Judaeo-Spanish, or Ladino, language which became the mother tongue of Thessaloniki Jews. [121] By the 1680s about 300 families of Sephardi followers of Sabbatai Zevi had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (converts), and migrated to Thessaloniki, whose population was by that time majority-Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade. [122] Thessaloniki Jews later became pioneers of socialism and the labour movement in Greece.

Between the 15th and early 20th centuries, Thessaloniki was the only city in Europe where Jews were a majority of the population. [123] The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 destroyed much of the city and left 50,000 Jews homeless. [124] Many Jews emigrated to the United States, Palestine, and Paris after the loss of their livelihoods, being unable to wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done. [125] The aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War and the expulsion of Greeks from Turkey saw nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews in the total community. Following the demographic shift, Jews made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece granted the Jews the same civil rights as other Greek citizens. [124] In March 1926, Greece re-emphasised that all citizens of Greece enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews decided to stay.

According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form". [126] Though antisemitism was utilised both by the Metaxas dictatorship and by newspapers such as Makedonia as part of the wider mechanism for identifying leftists, Greek Jews were either neutral or supportive of Metaxas. [127] By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. World War II was disastrous for Greek Jews the Battle of Greece saw Greek Macedonia occupied by Italy, Bulgaria, and Nazi Germany, with the latter occupying much of Central Macedonia and implementing the Nuremberg Laws against the Jewish population. Greeks of the Resistance and Italian forces (before 1943) tried to protect the Jews and managed to save some. [119] In 1943 the Nazis began actions against the Jews in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning their deportation to concentration camps in German-occupied territories. They deported 56,000 of the city's Jews, by use of 19 Holocaust trains, to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps, where 43,000–49,000 of them were killed. [87] [88] [89] Today, a community of around 1,200 remains in the city. [119] Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki Jews – both Sephardic and Romaniote – live in other areas, mainly the United States and Israel. [119] Other cities of Greek Macedonia with significant Jewish population (Romaniote or Sephardi) in the past included Veria, Kavala and Kastoria.


Amphipolis

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Amphipolis is situated upon the eastern bank of the River Strymon about five kilometers (3.10 miles) inland from the northern shore of the Aegean Sea. In the time of Alexander the Great and his successors it was one of the greatest cities of anci.

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Military Decree of Amphipolis

The Military Decree of Amphipolis (c. 200 BC) is a Macedonian Greek inscription of two marble blocks, that originally contain at least three columns of text. It preserves a list of regulations governing the behaviour and discipline of the Macedonian army in camp.

τοὺς μὴ φέροντας τι τῶν καθηκόντων αὐτοῖς ὅπλων ζημιούτωσαν κατά τα γεγραμμένα· κοτθύβου ὀβολοὺς δύο, κώνου τὸ ἴσον, σαρίσης ὀβολοὺς τρεῖς, μαχαίρας τὸ ἴσον, κνημίδων ὀβολοὺς δύο, ἀσπίδος δραχμήν. Ἑπὶ δὲ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τῶν τε δεδηλωμένων ὅπλων τὸ διπλοῦν καὶ θώρακος δραχμὰς δύο, ἡμιθωρακίου δραχμήν. Λαμβανέτωσαν δὲ τὴν ζημίαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχυ[πηρέτ]αι, παραδείξαντες τῶι βασιλεῖ τοὺς ἠθετηκότας
those not bearing the weapons appropriate to them are to be fined according to the regulations: for the kotthybos, two obols, the same amount for the konos, three obols for the sarissa, the same for the makhaira, for the knemides two obols, for the aspis a drachma. In the case of hegemons (officers), double for the arms mentioned, two drachmas for the thorax, a drachma for the hemithorakion. The secretaries (grammateis) and the chief assistants (archyperetai) shall exact the penalty, after indicating the transgressors to the King (basileus)

Other military terms mentioned are: ephodos (inspection patrol), ekkoition ("out-of-bed", LSJ: night-watch), stegnopoiia (building the barracks), skenopoiia (tent-making), phragmos (fencing in), diastasis, phylax (guard), hypaspists, parembole, stratopedon (camp), speirarch (commander of a speira), tetrarch, and the strategoi.


Behind Tomb Connected to Alexander the Great, Intrigue Worthy of "Game of Thrones"

As archaeologists dig deeper into the burial mound, ancient sources tell a tale of family drama and palace intrigue.

Suspense is rising as archaeologists sift for clues to the identity of the person buried with pomp and circumstance in the mysterious Amphipolis tomb in what is now northern Greece. The research team thinks the tomb was built for someone very close to Alexander the Great—his mother, Olympias one of his wives, Roxane one of his favorite generals or possibly his childhood friend and lover, Hephaestion.

Over the past three months, archaeologist Katerina Peristeri and her team have made a series of tantalizing discoveries in the tomb, from columns sculpted masterfully in the shapes of young women to a mosaic floor depicting the abduction of the Greek goddess Persephone. The tomb's costly artwork all dates to the tumultuous time around the death of Alexander the Great, and points to the presence of an important person.

Alexander himself was almost certainly buried in Egypt. But the final resting places—and the rich historical and genetic data they may contain—of many of his family members are unknown. The excavation at Amphipolis is bound to add a new chapter to the history of Alexander the Great and his family, a dynasty as steeped in intrigue, conspiracy, and bloodshed as the fictional Lannisters in the popular television series Game of Thrones. Among Alexander's family, "the king or ruler who ended up dying in his bed was rare," says Philip Freeman, a biographer of Alexander the Great and a classical historian at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa.

To understand these palace intrigues, one must begin with Alexander's father, Philip II, who ascended the throne of ancient Macedonia in 359 B.C. At the time, Macedonia was a modest mountain realm north of ancient Greece, but Philip had big dreams. He transformed Macedonia's army from a band of ragtag fighters into a disciplined military machine, and he armed it with a deadly new weapon, the sarissa, a long lance designed to keep enemy troops from closing in on his phalanxes.

A natural-born conqueror, Philip led his army to the west, crushing and intimidating the major Greek city-states until all had surrendered to his rule. "Philip II was a traditional warrior king," says Ian Worthington, author of By the Spear: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Rise and Fall of the Macedonian Empire. "He was always in the thick of battle."

By custom, Macedonia's kings married multiple wives, often for the purposes of sealing political alliances with powerful neighbors. Alexander's mother, Olympias, was a daughter of the king of Molossia, a realm that encompassed part of modern Albania, and she claimed descent from the legendary Greek hero, Achilles. She was one of Philip's many wives, and according to ancient historians, she schemed relentlessly at court to put her son on the Macedonian throne. Some historians even suspect that she poisoned Alexander's older half-brother, impairing his mental faculties.

For a time, her intrigues seemed to succeed. Philip groomed the young Alexander as his heir, providing the boy with a first-class education from a renowned tutor, Aristotle, and encouraging his prowess as a warrior.

But important Macedonian nobles at Philip's court viewed Alexander as half foreign and possibly illegitimate. By the time Alexander reached his late teens, Philip seemed to share these doubts. He took a new Macedonian wife, and during a drinking party, Philip allowed Alexander's legitimacy to be publicly questioned. Then Philip drew his own sword on Alexander, a mortal insult.

Philip later tried to patch things up, but he had created a dangerous enemy. Exactly what happened next is the subject of debate, although the bare facts are well known. In 336 B.C., Philip threw a lavish public wedding for one of his daughters and invited members of neighboring royal houses to attend this state occasion.

As part of the festivities, Philip planned to stage public games at daybreak in the theater at Aigai, his capital city. He strode into the stadium, wearing a white cloak over his shoulders. On one side was Alexander on the other was his new son-in-law. Philip waved away his bodyguards, and as he stood at the center of the theater, the large crowd began to roar with approval.

"That was the last thing he ever heard," says Worthington. An assassin stepped out from the crowd and stabbed Philip to death as the guests watched in disbelief. In the ensuing bedlam, the murderer, a man named Pausanias, bolted from the theater toward a spot where horses were tethered and waiting for him. But just as Pausanias was about to escape, he tripped and fell, and three of Philip's bodyguards speared him to death.

Did Pausanias act alone? Some ancient texts suggest that he did, assassinating Philip in a jealous rage. Many of the ancient Macedonian nobles were bisexual, and Philip was no exception. He had taken Pausanias as his lover, and when he tired of him, he discarded the young man and even allowed others to sexually abuse Pausanias. So Pausanias may have murdered Philip in an act of revenge.

But several clues point to a conspiracy, says Worthington. Pausanias, for example, fled to a spot where multiple horses were waiting, suggesting that several people had made plans for escaping the crime scene.

"I think Pausanias was manipulated to kill Philip," says Worthington, who suspects that Olympias and Alexander played key parts in the assassination. Both mother and son had been deeply insulted by Philip. In addition, they may have feared that Philip's young Macedonian wife would produce a Macedonian heir more acceptable to the local nobility. The only way to prevent this would be to eliminate Philip. So Worthington theorizes that Olympias and Alexander poisoned Pausanias's mind and encouraged him to murder Philip.

Other classical historians aren't so sure Alexander was guilty of patricide. Nevertheless, says Luther College's Freeman, "if you put Alexander on a couch today and tried to analyze him, you could have a lot of fun."


The Mystery of Ancient Amphipolis


Excavations conducted in a tomb in Casta, in ancient Amphipolis, have raised questions. The area is being guarded by the police while the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports is monitoring ongoing developments.
Archaeologists are wondering if they have discovered an ancient royal tomb. According to data presented by the department head of ancient monuments in northern Greece, Catherine Peristeri, excavations in Casta mound have revealed a unique world monument due to its size reaching a height of 3 meters and a total length of 497 meters.
The tomb dates back to 325-300 BC and reportedly bears the signature of famous ancient architect Dinocrates, a close friend of Alexander the Great.
According to Peristeri, major historical events had taken place in the area of Amphiboles during that period. Major generals and admirals of Alexander the Great are associated with the area, and it is there that in 311 BC Cassander exiled and then killed the wife of Alexander the Great, Roxanne, and his son, Alexander the Fourth.
The tomb consists of foundations, supporting columns, a top part and decorations of white marble from Thassos. It was destroyed during the Roman period and many architectural elements disappeared, some of which were discovered during excavations in the area where the famous Lion of Amphipolis is located.
Excavations in the mound of Amphipolis first started in the 1960s. Many have claimed that the tomb belongs to Alexander the Great. However, archaeologists and experts say that although the monument is really important, it is not attributed to him.
Samaras visits ancient Amphipolis
Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras, accompanied by his wife Georgia and Culture Minister Constantinos Tassoulas, is visiting the site of Ancient Amphipolis, in northern Greece. Samaras will also visit Kasta hill and will be guided through the ongoing archaeological excavation site.


Amphipolis Tomb Yields Amazing Finds But Mysteries Linger

Archeological finds at the Amphipolis tomb may date back to Alexander the Great. That news delights modern Greeks. But what if the tomb is Roman?

James Romm

Sakis Mitrolidis/AFP/Getty

With their economy cratering and their government shaky, the Greeks are praying that Alexander the Great—or rather, his mother or son, or one of his generals—will come to their rescue. Greece has high hopes that the giant tomb now being excavated at Amphipolis contains one of these ancient Macedonian leaders. But when the inner chambers of the structure are revealed, sometime within the next few weeks, there may be bitter disappointments in store.

Thus far the tomb at Amphipolis has produced artistic wonders, adding to speculation that its occupant(s) held very high rank. During the past week a superb mosaic, depicting a mythological rape scene, was uncovered on the floor of an antechamber: Hades, driving a chariot, is shown dragging the goddess Persephone down to his underworld kingdom, while a conspiratorial Hermes guides the team of horses. Even with a large circular section missing (but perhaps recoverable), this mosaic is clearly a masterwork, as are the sculpted caryatids (columns in the shape of women) that stand guard just in front of it.

Though these finds have amazed observers worldwide and delighted the Greek nation, they have told little about what might lie beyond the tomb’s as-yet unbreached fourth entrance wall. In fact both the mosaic and the caryatid columns have raised questions as to whether the building dates to the era of Alexander the Great’s successors—the last quarter of the 4th century B.C.—or may even be Roman rather than Greek in provenance.

Establishing the date of ancient monuments is often not easy, especially in the absence of inscriptions or easily datable objects like coins and pottery sherds. No such clues have yet been announced by the archaeological team at Amphipolis, a group led by Katerina Persisteri. Peristeri has vigorously claimed that the structure she is excavating dates to the last quarter the 4th century B.C., the tumultuous era that followed Alexander’s conquest of his vast Asian empire and his sudden demise in 323, but has not said why she thinks so. In a recent interview, Peristeri responded angrily to those who have challenged this date, hinting that it relies on conclusive evidence that, for undisclosed reasons, has not as yet been made public.

Among these challengers is Olga Palagia, professor of archaeology at the University of Athens. After the caryatids were uncovered last month, Palagia, an expert in the history of ancient sculpture, suggested that they were carved not by the Greeks or Macedonians of Alexander’s era, but by Romans of a much later time imitating their Greek predecessors. The mosaic too looks to her eyes more like a work of the 1st than the 4th century B.C. In her view, the Amphipolis building may not hold Macedonian remains at all, but perhaps served to memorialize a Roman military victory in the area—perhaps that at Philippi, a site not far from Amphipolis, where, after the assassination of Julius Caesar, his heir Octavian defeated the senatorial armies of Brutus and Cassius.

Should Palagia’s Roman-era dating prove correct, the Amphipolis find would still be hugely important, but nonetheless deeply disappointing to the Greek nationalist feelings that the excavation has aroused. The idea that the tomb is linked to Alexander—a heroic leader who inspires great pride in modern Greeks—has figured prominently in the announcements and press conferences held by the excavators. Top government officials, including Prime Minister Antonis Samaras, have made highly publicized visits to the site and have claimed it as a monument to the glories of Greek, not Roman, civilization.

By now there is a great deal riding on what will be revealed in the main chambers of the tomb, presumably just beyond the recently cleared third antechamber. A nation beset by economic woes and political uncertainty may receive a badly needed boost to its self-confidence, a reminder of a glorious past when its kings ruled much of the world. Or it may see evidence of the decline that followed, the centuries after Alexander’s when Greeks became subject to “barbarian” Roman invaders. Research into the past has always been politicized in the Aegean region, but the questions surrounding Amphipolis, hopefully due to be answered in the next few weeks, have brought the politics of archaeology to a whole new level.


Researchers have possibly identified a second monument buried at Amphipolis

Aerial view of the Kasta Hill site.

Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal November 28, 2016

Ancient Greece’s largest tomb has more than its fair share of secrets. While back in January of 2015, it was revealed that the Amphipolis Tomb had not one, but five occupants researchers are now hypothesizing that there is possibly a second monument at the Kasta Hill site. This hypothesis is based on a geophysical survey, carried out by the Applied Geophysics Lab of the Aristotle University of Macedonia. And the consequent results have revealed a hidden structure buried at a depth of around 2 m (around 7 ft) on the west side of the hill.

As director of the lab, Grigoris Tsokas made it clear (as told to ANA-MPE news agency)-

We have a three-dimensional representation and the distribution of resistance shows that there is something there. We guess there is a second monument, far smaller than the one found, that has been found at a depth of about two meters and it should be investigated.

The survey also revealed a buried ravine of the north-eastern side, with a man-made embankment covering a significant part of the section. As for the main monument, the researchers additionally discovered a piece of coal along what might be the foundations of the megastructure. Analysis of the object points to a date of circa 300 BC (+/- 30 years) for the Amphipolis tomb construction. But of course all of these finds can only be confirmed through further excavations at the Kasta Hill site. As Tsokas added –

The geophysical study of Casta Hill was commissioned to our workshop in 2014 and the university has funded the research in full. We have already explored the hill and processed the data, which is difficult because of the volume, and have found some additional data. An excavation permit is needed and now we are trying to find the funds to continue.

Artist’s rendition of the Amphipolis Tomb layout. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture.