Z.501 ei saa olla Beaufightersi rünnaku all

Z.501 ei saa olla Beaufightersi rünnaku all


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Z.501 ei saa olla Beaufightersi rünnaku all

Sellel pildil on näha paar Bristol Beaufightersi, kes asusid ründama Cant Z.501 lendavat paati Itaalia baasis Prevesas Kreeka rannikul.


CANT Z.511

The CANT Z.511 oli nelja mootoriga pikamaa-vesilennuk, mille projekteeris firma "Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico" (CRDA) Filippo Zappata. Algselt Kesk- ja Lõuna -Atlandi reisijate marsruutide jaoks kavandatud, hiljem kohandati seda sõjaliseks transpordiks ja erireideriks.

CANT Z.511
CANT Z.511 eestvaade
Roll Vesilennuk
Tootja Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico
Disainer Filippo Zappata
Esimene lend Oktoober 1940
Arv ehitatud 2


Nr 217 malevkond RAF 1942-45

Beaufort I hajutuspliiatsis Luqa lennuväljal Maltal, pildistatud 1942. Sellel on ninas kaks Vickers K püstolit, mida juhib navigaator, USA radariantenn kere all ja suur õhufilter mootori korpuse kohal.

Tseiloni RAF Vavuniya 217 eskadroni Beaufighter TFX -id, kes harjutasid 1945. aastal formeerimist, valmistudes operatsiooniks „Jinx”, torpeedorünnak Jaapani laevastiku vastu Singapuri lähedal Lingga teedel.

1942. aasta aprilli keskel sai 217 eskaadrit käsku valmistada ette lend Tseiloni, olles varustatud torpeedopommitaja rollis. Selle eesmärk oli kaitsta saart Malaya vallutanud ja Singapuri okupeerinud Jaapani vägede võimaliku sissetungi eest. Kuid eskaader ei suutnud seda kohe täita, sest see polnud täielikult varustatud torpeedot kandvate Beaufort II-de ega väljaõppinud meeskonnaga.

Veelgi enam, selle kuu esimesel päeval ei suutnud tiibade ülem „Mac” Boal naasta torpeedorünnakust Saksa konvoi vastu Norras Stavangeri fjordi lähedal. See konvoi koosnes kümnest alusest, mis kandsid varusid Kristiansandi okupeerinud Saksa vägedele, saates kolme traallaeva, mis olid ümber ehitatud laevadeks. Boal juhtis rünnakule veel kaks Beauforti, kuid tulistati maha. Tema ja traadita operaator seersant Stan Clarke olid tapetud. Navigaator seersant John Sinclair ja õhutulistaja seersant Maurice Mayne olid haavatud, kuid mõlemad võeti ülejäänud sõja ajaks vastu. Ülejäänud kaks Beauforti olid torpeedod maha lasknud, kuid need olid vahele jäänud, kuid lennuk oli turvaliselt tagasi jõudnud.

Tseiloni lennuks ettevalmistamine osutus väga pikaks. Tiivaülem W.A.L. Davies saabus eskaadrit juhtima. Torpeedo väljaõppeüksusest liitusid uued meeskonnad, mõned pärast üsna napit kursust. Torpeedoraamidega varustatud uued Beaufort II -d jõudsid aeglaselt kohale. Mõne nädala pärast hakkasid meeskonnad lendama Cornreati edelaosas asuvasse Portreathi, kus oli ette nähtud pika lennu tankid. Selle esimene etapp pidi olema üle neutraalse Portugali Gibraltarile. Järgmine oleks ümberpiiratud Malta saarele ja seejärel pikem lend Egiptusesse Kairosse. Alles 10. juunil saabus MAF -i RAF Luqasse esimene osa üheksast Beaufortist, järgmisel päeval veel kuus. Lõpuks tilkus veel seitse inimest, kuid teine ​​tegi sunnitud maandumise Portugalis ja meeskond interneeriti. Nende Beaufortide saabumine oli õhuametniku juhtkonnale, õhulinna asepressal Mars Sir Hugh Pughe Lloydile hea meel, sest ta suutis neid ajutiselt kasutada operatsioonidel, mis olid palju kiireloomulisemad kui Jaapani võimalik sissetung Tseiloni. Kuigi õhust tugevasti pommitati, oli Malta Põhja -Aafrikas Briti kaheksandale armeele varusid kandvate liitlaskonvoide kaitsmiseks ülioluline. Mõned Beaufort’id 22 -st eskadronist olid juba saabunud, kuid uustulnukatelt nõuti ka Itaalia mereväe sõjalaevade torpeedot ning Aafrika Korpusele varusid tarnivate teljelaevade uputamist.

Kui esimesed Beaufort’id 217 eskadronist Maltale saabusid, oli saarel varud nii puudulikud, et see ei suutnud enam vaevalt vastu pidada. Kütus ja toit olid kõige kriitilisemad. Küll aga lähenesid kaks liitlaskonvoid. Üks, koodnimega "Harpoon", oli lahkunud Clyde'ist ja möödunud Gibraltarist. Teine, koodnimega „Jõuline”, oli Egiptusest Aleksandriast lahkunud ja samuti saare lähedal. Mõlemad olid pideva rünnaku all, peamiselt Luftwaffe poolt, ja olid juba kandnud suuri kaotusi.

14. juunil teatas Baltimore'i meeskond, et märkas Itaalia mereväge, mis lähenes jõule. Üheksa Beauforti 217 -st eskadrillist said käsu rünnata järgmise päeva koidikul eesotsas tiivaülema Daviesiga. Kaheksa tõusis õhku umbes kell 04.00, kuid teist, lendava politseiametniku Arthur Aldridge'i lendu, viivitas teine ​​lennuk, mis tõkestas tema varjualusest pliiatsist väljapääsu. Aldridge otsustas, et on liiga hilja teiste Beaufortidega ühendust võtta ja suunduda otse vaenlase laevastiku poole, mis talle tundmatu koosnes neljast ristlejast ja neljast hävitajast. See saabus mõni minut enne päikesetõusu ja Itaalia laskurid ei avanud tuld, arvates, et hämarusest välja lendav üksik lennuk peab olema sõbralik.

Aldridge tegi ringi ja valis välja suure anuma, mis juhtis moodustist. Ta lendas sellest 45 ° nurga all ja vabastas oma torpeedo umbes 800 jardilt. Torpeedo täitus, kui ta ära pööras. See tabas vibudesse 10 500 tonni rasket ristlejat Trento ja plahvatas. Sel hetkel saabus viis Beauforti ja ründas, ülejäänud kolm suundusid põhja poole jahtima kahte Itaalia lahingulaeva, millest oli samuti teatatud. Mõlemad koosseisud lendasid tugevasse tulle. Kõik lasid torpeedod maha, kuid itaallased suutsid oma jälgi kammida. Ristlejate vastu suunatud tegevust oli pealt näinud allveelaeva HMS Umbra komandör, kes sulges kannatada saanud aluse ja pani talle teise torpeedo. Trento kaldus kreeni ja vajus, kaotades raskeid inimesi. Seejärel liikus allveelaev põhja Itaalia lahingulaevade juurde ja tulistas veel neli torpeedot, kuid need kõik jäid vahele.

Kõik Beaufortid naasid Maltale, kuid meeskondadel kästi pärast kahe kahjustatud õhusõiduki ja ühe haavatud laskuri väljavahetamist uuesti õhku tõusta. Nad tegid seda, kuid ei leidnud sihtmärke, sest Itaalia sõjalaevad olid suundunud Tarantosse. Sellest hoolimata pöördus „Jõuline” konvoi tagasi Aleksandria poole, kuna selle laskurid olid kulutanud peaaegu kogu oma laskemoona. Järgmisel päeval saabus Maltale ainult kaks kaubalaeva "Harpoon" kolonnist. Kaks konvoid kaotasid ühe ristleja, viis hävitajat, kaks miinipildujat ja kuus kaubalaeva, kuid olid Maltale teatavat leevendust toonud.

Järgmine operatsioon toimus 20. juunil, kui kaksteist Beauforti asusid Itaalia varba lähedal asuvale teljekonvoile. Kaks viimati õhku tõusnud lennukit ründasid kaks lennukit Junkers Ju 88. Ühest, kellega lendas seersant Hutcheson, õnnestus kõrvale hiilida, kuid teine, lendava ohvitseri Frank Minsteri poolt, tulistati maha ja ellujäänuid polnud. Teised Beaufortid ei leidnud konvoid üles ja naasid kaotusteta.

Järgmisel päeval asusid üheksa Beauforti kolmes vikeris eskadrilli juhi Robert Lynni juhtimisel ründama Liibüas Tripoli poole suunduvat tugevalt kaitstud konvoid. Neid saatsid kuus 235 malevkonna Beaufightersi. Kõik kolm Beauforti esimeses ohvris tulistati rünnaku ajal alla. Lynn ja tema meeskond kaotasid elu. Ülejäänud kahe piloodil õnnestus meeskonnad kraavi tühistada, konvoi võttis nad kätte, osa neist sai haavata. Veel kaks Beauforti said löögi, kuid neil ja ülejäänud viiel õnnestus Maltale naasta, ehkki mõne haavatuga. Moodustis oli torpedeerinud ja uputanud 7744 tonnise Saksa kaubalaeva Reichenfels.

23. juunil juhtis Wingi komandör Davies oma eskadroni seitse Beauforti koos viiega 39 -st eskaadrist teisele kolonnile Itaalia varba lähedal. Nad tabasid ja kahjustasid 6835 tonni kaaluvat Itaalia kaubalaeva Mario Roselli, kuid kaks 39 eskadroni Beauforti lasti maha. Üks 217 eskadroni Beauforti lenduritest sai haavata jalas ja kukkus alla. Järgnes vaheaeg kuni 3. juulini, mil malevkonna juht Patrick Gibbs juhtis segajõude 39 ja 217 eskadrillist ründama konvoid Kreeka edelaranniku lähedal. Torpeedo tabamusi väideti, kuid kaks Beauforti 217 eskaadrist tulistati alla, neid lendasid seersant Russell Mercer ja seersant James Hutcheson ning ellujäänuid polnud.

Pärast seda rünnakut vabastati 217 malevkonda üle kahe nädala. Selle kaotused olid suured ja kõigi kolme Beauforti eskadrilli ellujäänud lennumeeskondade seas oli probleeme haigustega, millest mõned kannatasid puukide palaviku, düsenteeria või sügeliste all. Annused langesid näljahäda tasemele, mis süvendas neid probleeme.

Esimene rünnak pärast seda taastumisperioodi toimus 21. juulil, kui malevkonna juht Gibbs juhtis kolm Beauforti 217 -st eskadronist koos nelja 86 -st ja kahe 39 -st eskaadrist konvoisse Kreeka Cephalonia saare lähedal. Nad väitsid teatavat edu ja kõik tulid turvaliselt tagasi.

22. juulil naasis Wingi ülem Davies Ühendkuningriiki. Patrick Gibbs ülendati tiibade ülemaks ja võttis üle ülejäänud 39, 86 ja 217 eskadrilli Maltal. Need hakkasid toimima ühtse üksusena, mõnikord lendasid sama lennukiga mehed erinevatest eskadrillidest.

Selle komposiitüksusega toimus rünnak 24. juulil, kolm Beauforti 217 malevast ja kolm 86 eskadronist, keda saatsid üheksa 235 malevkonna Beaufightersi. Nende sihtmärk oli suur kaubalaev, mis oli märgatud Kefaloni lähedal ja mida saatsid kaks hävitajat ja kaks laeva. Beaufighters ja kolm Beauforti 86 malevkonnast ründasid esimesena, kuid kõik Beaufortid tulistati tugeva pauguga maha. Ometi ründasid kolm 217 -st eskadronist vastassuunast, tabades vaenlase püssimehi üllatuslikult, ja lõid itaallasele 6300 -tonnisele Vettor Pisanile kaks torpeedolööki, mis süttisid ja põlesid läbi. Neli 86 malevkonna meest hukkusid, kuid kaheksa võeti üles sõjaväelasteks.

28. juulil toimunud rünnak tõi kaasa Teise maailmasõja ühe erakordseima sündmuse. Üheksa Beauforti raputati torpeedodega ja startisid Gibbsi juhtimisel, et rünnata kaubalaeva, mida saatsid kaks hävitajat Kreekast edelas. Kaks 217 eskadroni Beauforti tulistati alla. Lennuki kolm meeskonnaliiget, kellega lendas pilootohvitser R.I.C. Pea sai kätte üks hävitaja. Teise Beauforti neli meest, kellega lendas SAAF -i leitnant Ted Strever, võttis Itaalia lennuk Cant üles ja viis põhja poole Kreeka Prevesa sadamasse. Järgmisel päeval viidi nad Itaaliasse Taranto suunas teise Cant'i, kuid neil õnnestus relvastatud valvur ja Itaalia meeskond ületada. Nad lendasid Cantiga Maltale ja maandusid lahes, hoolimata sellest, et neid ründasid Spitfires.

Teine Malta kolonn, koodnimega Operatsioon „Pjedestaal“, sisenes Gibraltari kaudu Vahemerele 10. augustil. Grand Harbourini jõudis viis kaubalaeva, millest viimane oli sandi tanker 15. augustil. Konvoi oli kaotanud lennukikandja, kaks ristlejat, hävitaja ja üheksa kaubalaeva, kuid see oli toonud piisavalt kütust ja varusid, et hoida Malta kahe kuu jooksul elujõulisena. Lõpuks vabastati 217 malevkonda, et jätkata lendu Tseiloni, kuid see suudaks koguda ainult kaheksa meeskonda ja Beaufortsi esialgsest kahekümne ühest, kes olid maandunud Luqas. Lennukid olid eelseisvaks lennuks varustatud pikamaa tankidega.

Viimane meeskond lahkus Maltalt 28. augustil. Lennud Tseiloni toimusid humalasarjana RAF -i maandumispaikadesse või jaamadesse. Kairost oli tavaline marsruut lõuna pool Punase mere põhjatippini ja seejärel itta üle Iraagi kuni Habbaniya, Bagdadi lähedal. Järgmine etapp oli kagus Pärsia lahe ääres Bahreini. Siis pöördusid nad veel kord itta, Indiasse Karachisse. Viimane etapp oli kagus Bombay ja Bangalore kaudu RAF Mimmeriya Tseiloni keskosas. Eskaadri maapealne partei oli saabunud juba meritsi ja seejärel maismaale.

Mõne nädala pärast muutusid meeskonnad Beaufortsist Lockheed Hudsonsiks. Saabusid uued meeskonnad ja tiivaülem A.D.W. Miller asus juhtima novembris. Eskadrill asus tööle India ookeani kohal allveelaevade vastastes patrullides. Üksused saadeti saare edelaosas Colombo lähedal asuvasse Ratmalanasse.

Need patrullid Hudsonsis osutusid sündmusteta ja 1943. aasta veebruaris kolis eskadron umbes viiskümmend miili põhja poole RAF Vavuniyasse, kus elamistingimused olid veidi mugavamad. Tiivaülem R.J. Walker võttis eskadrilli üle märtsis ja meeskonnad pöördusid aprilli jooksul uuesti Beaufortsi. Koos samas jaamas asuva 22 eskaadriga moodustasid nad Jaapani sõjalaevade vastu torpeedot kandva löögijõu, kuid viimased tegelesid Vaiksel ookeanil pakilisemate küsimustega ja ei ilmunud kohale. Üks meeskond 217 eskadronist kadus 26. augustil 1943 torpeedotreeningu käigus, olles ilmselt väga madalal tasemel lennates merre saanud.

See tegevusetus Beaufortsiga kestis üle aasta ja muutus lennumeeskondade jaoks nii tülikaks, et nad nimetasid end Ceyloni koduvalveks. Torpeedot kandvad Beaufighter TFX-id („Torbeaus”) saabusid aga 1944. aasta juunis ja lennumeeskonnad hakkasid neile üle minema. Wingi ülem John G. Lingard DFC võttis järgmisel augustil üle 217 eskadroni. Lennumeeskonnad hakkasid treenima surmavate rakettmürskudega (RP) ja aasta lõpuks sai nende eskadronist väga tõhus võitlusjõud. Sel ajal oli 22 eskaadrit sarnaselt varustatud ja asus liikuma Birma teatrisse.

1945. aasta alguses kavandas RAF -i rühm nr 222 Colombos uue operatsiooni 217 malevkonna jaoks. See koosnes rünnakust Jaapani laevastiku vastu Singapuris ja selle koodnimi oli operatsioon „Jinx”. Kuid Beaufighters ei suutnud Tseilonist Singapuri jõuda, umbes 2300 miili kaugusel, ja otsustati, et nad tegutsevad väikesest kookose saarte rühmast, mis asub Singapurist umbes 1040 miili kaugusel, eeldusel, et nad ületavad Sumatra mäestiku. Operatsiooni karistas Kagu-Aasia väejuhatuse ülemjuhataja viitseadmiral lord Louis Mountbatten.

Toimusid tohutud jõupingutused, et valmistada operatsiooniks ette vahepeatus Kookose saartel. Ühel neist oli juba kaablijaamas väike kuninglike inseneride seltskond, mis sai nimeks Direction Island, ning malevkonna 217 eskadroni eelrühm maandus sinna ristleja poolt märtsi alguses. Neile järgnesid kolm suurt transporti, mis tõid kohale üle 200 õhuväelase koos ehitusmaterjalide ja varustusega, sealhulgas kaheksakümmend üks torpeedot. "Station Brown", millel on hooned ja pressitud terasest plankudega maandumisrada purustatud korallidel, oli aprilli lõpus džunglist välja lõigatud õhukomodoree A.W juhtimisel. Hunt.

Vahepeal harjutasid 217 eskadroni meeskonnad umbes kaheksatunniseid kauglende kaheteistkümnes Beaufighteris, mis olid varustatud täiendavate kütusepaakidega. Nad teadsid, et peavad lendama Kookose saartele, ja neile öeldi, et nende sihtmärkideks Singapuris on kolm lahingulaeva, lennukikandja ja mitu hävitajat, mida kaitsevad võitlejad kolmelt lennuväljalt. Ilmselgelt oli see äärmiselt ohtlik operatsioon ja võib -olla ka enesetapp.

3. mail said 217 malevkonna mehed teada, et operatsioon on tühistatud. Neile ei öeldud põhjust ja nad olid raisatud oma raisatud pingutuste pärast. Tagantjärele tundub, et direktiiv tuli Mountbattenilt, sest ta oli kavatsenud operatsiooni „Zipper” - sissetungi Malaisia ​​mandrile Phuketi saare lähedal - plaaniti alustada augusti lõpus. Kõik sekundaarsed toimingud tühistati ressursside säästmiseks.

Eskaader nr 217 sai käsu kolida India idarannikul Madrasest lõuna pool asuvasse RAF Gannavarumi ning harjutada selle uue operatsiooni ettevalmistamiseks raketi- ja kahuritulistamist. Maa- ja õhuparteid lõpetasid selle sammu 22. juunil, kuid operatsiooni „Tõmblukk” ei toimunud kunagi. Maailm teab, et Jaapanile heideti aatomipommid ja riik alistus tingimusteta 14. augustil. Sama aasta 30. septembril saadeti laiali 217 malevkonda.


Sisu

Ettevõtte muutmine

Sõjaline lennundus algas vabas Poolas juba enne ametlikult tunnustatud taasiseseisvumiskuupäeva (11. november 1918). Poola oli kuni vaherahu sõlmimiseni Saksa ja Austria-Ungari okupatsiooni all, kuid poolakad hakkasid keskvõimude kokkuvarisemisel kontrolli alla võtma. Esialgu koosnesid Poola lennuväed peamiselt Saksa ja Austria lennukitest, mis jäeti maha endiste sõitjate poolt või vallutati neilt, enamasti Suure -Poola ülestõusu ajal. Neid lennukeid kasutasid Poola õhujõud esmakordselt Poola-Ukraina sõjas 1918. aasta lõpus, Lwówi (praegu Lviv) linna ümber koondunud lahingutegevuse ajal. [2] 2. novembril 1918 sooritas piloot Stefan Bastyr Poola lennukite esimese lahingulennu Lvivist. [3]

Kui 1920. aasta veebruaris puhkes Poola-Nõukogude sõda, kasutasid Poola õhujõud mitmesuguseid endisi Saksa ja Austria-Ungari ning hiljuti soetatud lääneriikide liitlaste lennukeid. Kõige tavalisemad olid sel ajal kerged pommitajad ja luurelennukid, arvukamate hulgas olid pommitajad Breguet 14, Saksa luurelennukid LVG C.V, Briti Bristoli F2B skaudid ja Itaalia Ansaldo Balilla hävitajad. [4]

Pärast Poola-Nõukogude sõja lõppu 1921. aastal eemaldati järk-järgult enamik kulunud Esimese maailmasõja lennukeid ja alates 1924. aastast hakati õhujõude varustama uute Prantsuse lennukitega. Kokku oli aastatel 1918–1924 Poola õhuväes ja merelennunduses 2160 lennukit (mitte kõik töökorras), milles oli 1384 luurelennukit ja 410 hävitajat. [4] Aastatel 1924–1930 oli Poola õhujõudude esmane hävitaja SPAD 61 ja selle peamised pommitajad olid prantslastest toodetud lennukid Potez 15 ja Potez 25, mis lõpuks toodeti Poolas lennuvälja Henry Potez litsentsi alusel.

Esimene Poola projekteeritud ja masstoodanguna lennuk, mis teenis riigi õhujõududes, oli kõrge tiivaga hävitaja PWS-10, mille esmakordselt valmistas 1930. aastal Podlasie lennukitehas.

Sõdadevahelised aastad Edit

1933. aastal projekteeriti ja toodeti Zygmunt Pulawski esimene kõrge tiivaga metallist lennuk PZL P.7a, mida kasutusele võeti 150. Disainile järgnes 30 täiustatud PZL P.11a lennukit ja lõplik disain PZL P.11c tarniti 1935. aastal ning oli oma aja kohta arvestatav hävitaja 175 asus teenistusse ja jäi ainsaks Poola hävitajaks kuni 1939. aastani. kui välismaa lennukidisain oli sellest ette jõudnud. Selle lõplik versioon, PZL P.24, ehitati ainult ekspordiks ja selle ostsid neli riiki. Uus võitleja prototüüp, PZL.50 Jastrząb (Hawk), mis sarnaneb paigutusega Seversky P-35-le, oli natside sissetungi ja kahe kahemootorilise raskehävitaja PZL.38 Wilk ja PZL.48 Lampart tõttu piiratud. jäid prototüüpideks. [2]

Mis pommitajatesse puutub, siis Potez 25 ja Breguet 19 asendati 1936. aastast alates 250-ga ehitatud täismetallist monoplaaniga PZL.23 Karaś, kuid 1939. aastaks oli Karas aegunud. 1938. aastal kavandas Poola tehas PZL kaasaegse kahemootorilise keskmise pommitaja PZL.37 Łoś (Elk). Łośi pommi kandevõime oli 2580 kg ja tippkiirus 439 km/h. Kahjuks oli enne natside sissetungi kohale toimetatud vaid umbes 30 pommitajat Łoś A (üks sabaots) ja 70 Łoś B (kaks sabaotsikut).

Vaatlus- ja lähiluurelennukina poola eskadrid kasutas aeglast ja kergesti kahjustatavat Lublini R-XIII ning hiljem mudelit RWD-14 Czapla. Poola merelennundus kasutas ujukitel Lublini R-XIII. Vahetult enne sõda telliti mõned Itaalia torpeedolennukid CANT Z.506, kuid kohale toimetati ainult üks ja see oli ilma relvastuseta. Peamised lennukid, mida pilootide koolitamiseks kasutati, olid Poola ehitatud kõrge tiivaga RWD-8 ja kahelennuk PWS-26. 1939. aastal tellis Poola välismaalt 160 hävitajat MS-406 ja 10 hävitajat Hawker Hurricane, kuid neid ei tarnitud enne sõja puhkemist.

1939 Edit

1. septembril 1939, Poola pealetungi alguses, olid kõik Poola lahingulennukid hajutatud kõrvallennuväljadele, vastupidiselt Saksa propagandal põhinevale levinud arvamusele, et kõik need on hävitatud pommitamise teel oma lennubaasides. . Saksa pommitajate poolt lennuväljadel hävitatud lennukid olid enamasti koolitajad. Võitlejad rühmitati 15 saatjaks, neist viis moodustasid jälitusbrigaadi, mis oli paigutatud Varssavi piirkonda. Vaatamata vananemisele tulistasid Poola hävitajad PZL-11 alla üle 170 Saksa lennuki. Pommitajad, kes olid rühmitatud pommitusbrigaadi üheksasse eskaadrisse, ründasid soomustatud maasambaid, kuid kandsid suuri kaotusi. Eelkõige luureks kasutati seitset luure- ja 12 vaatluseskaadrit, kes olid paigutatud teatud armeedesse. Osa Poola õhujõududest hävitati kampaania käigus, ellujäänud lennukid võeti kinni või viidi tagasi Rumeeniasse, Ungarisse, Leetu, Lätti, Sloveeniasse või Rootsi, kelle õhuväed kasutasid neid lennukeid hiljem enda tarbeks (Rumeenia puhul kuni 1956). [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Paljudel pilootidel ja lennukimeeskonnal õnnestus Suurbritannia lahingu ajal põgeneda Prantsusmaale ja seejärel Suurbritanniasse, kus neil oli oluline osa Ühendkuningriigi kaitses natside sissetungi eest. Enne konflikti ostis Poola välismaalt ka 234 lennukit. Esimesed neist olid kohale toimetamisel, kui konflikt algas. Need olid Hawkeri orkaan (14 lennukit), Morane-Saulnier 406 (120 lennukit) ja Fairey Battle (100 lennukit). Laev ss Lassel, mille pardal oli 14 Hawkeri orkaani, lahkus Liverpoolist 28. augustil 1939, ka tarned Prantsusmaalt olid konflikti puhkemisel teel. [5]

Poola õhujõudude tugevus 1. septembril 1939 Edit

Lennukid [6] Päritolu Tüüp Variant Teenistuses Märkused
Võitluslennukid
PZL Lk.11 Poola Võitleja 175 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 140st
PZL P.7 Poola Võitleja 105 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 30st
PZL.23A Poola Kerge pommitaja 35
PZL.23B Poola Kerge pommitaja 170 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 120 -st
PZL.43 Poola Kerge pommitaja 6 Võitluskoosseisud koosnesid 6st
PZL.46 Summa Poola Kerge pommitaja 2 Võitluskoosseisud koosnesid 1
PZL.37 Łoś Poola Keskmine pommitaja 86 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 36 -st
LWS-6 Żubr Poola Keskmine pommitaja 15
Järelevalve
Lublin R XIII Poola Korraldaja 150 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 55 -st
RWD-14 Czapla Poola Luure 60 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 40 -st
RWD 8 Poola Luure 550 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 20 -st
PWS-16 Poola Luure/koolitaja 15 Lahinguvormid koosnesid 15st

1940 (Prantsusmaa) Redigeeri

Pärast Poola langemist hakkasid Poola õhujõud Prantsusmaal ümber koonduma. Ainus terviklik üksus, mis loodi enne sakslaste rünnakut Prantsusmaale, oli hävitajate eskadron GC I/145, mis lendas kergeid hävitajaid Caudron C.714. See oli tol ajal ainus üksus C.714. Poola lendureid paigutati ka erinevatesse Prantsuse eskadrillidesse, mis lendasid igat tüüpi Prantsuse hävitajatega, kuid enamasti MS-406-ga. Pärast Prantsusmaa alistumist õnnestus paljudel neist pilootidest põgeneda Suurbritanniasse, et jätkata võitlust Luftwaffe vastu.

1940–1947 (Ühendkuningriik) Redigeeri

Pärast Prantsusmaa langemist 1940. aastal moodustati Ühendkuningriigis kuninglike õhujõudude koosseisus Poola õhujõudude (PAF) nime all Poola üksused. Moodustati neli Poola eskadrilli:

Kaks Poola hävitusmalevat nägid esmakordselt tegevust Suurbritannia lahingu kolmandas faasis augustis 1940, suure eduga olid piloodid lahingukarastatud ja Poola lendamisoskus oli Poola sissetungist hästi õpitud. Piloote peeti kartmatuteks, mõnikord piirnesid hoolimatutega. Sellegipoolest olid edukuse määrad Ühendkuningriigi ja Empire'i pilootidega võrreldes väga kõrged. 303 Squadronist sai tol ajal kõige tõhusam RAF hävituslennuk. Paljud Poola lendurid lendasid individuaalselt ka teistes RAF -eskadrillides.

Teise maailmasõja edenedes loodi Ühendkuningriigis veel kaksteist Poola eskadrilli:

    (pommitaja, seejärel rannikujuhatus), (pommitaja), (võitleja), (ööhävitaja), (võitleja), (luure, siis võitleja), (võitleja), (võitleja), (võitleja), (hävitaja-luure), (õhuvaatlus/suurtükivägi),
  • ja Poola võitlusmeeskond, tuntud ka kui "Skalski tsirkus", mis on ühendatud 145 eskadroni RAF -iga.

Võitlejate eskadronid lendasid esialgu Hurricanesiga, seejärel lülitati Spitfiresile ja lõpuks Põhja -Ameerika Mustangidele. 307 malevkond, nagu ka teised öövõitlejate eskaadrid (näiteks Kanada kuningliku lennuväe 410 eskadron), lendas Boulton-Paul Defiantsi, Bristoli Beaufightersi ja lõpuks de Havilland Mosquitoes'i. Pommitajate eskadronid olid algselt varustatud Fairey Battles'i ja Vickers Wellingtonsiga. 300 malevkonnale määrati hiljem Avro Lancasters, 301 Squadron Handley Page Halifaxes ja Consolidated Liberators ning 305 Squadron, de Havilland Mosquitoes ja Põhja -Ameerika Mitchells. 663 malevkond (õhuvaatlus/suurtükivägi) lendas Auster AOP III ja Vs. Pärast sõda tagastati kogu varustus brittidele, kuid ainult osa lenduritest ja meeskondadest naasis tegelikult Poolasse, paljud asusid elama Ühendkuningriiki, osa neist naasis 1988. aastal pärast kommunismi langemist Poola.

1943–1945 (Nõukogude Liit) Redigeeri

Koos Poola rahvaväega (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie) NSV Liidus Poola rahva õhujõud (Ludowe Lotnictwo Polskie) loodi Nõukogude Liidu kaitseks natside sissetungi eest. 1943. aasta lõpus moodustati kolm rügementi:

  • 1. hävituspolk "Warszawa" (varustatud lennukitega Yak-1 ja Yak-9),
  • teine ​​ööpommitajate rügement "Kraków" (lendav Polikarpovi lennuk Po-2-toodetud Poolas CSS-13 nime all alates 1949. aastast),
  • ja moodustati 3. ründerügement (lendav Iljušin Il-2 lennuk).

Aastatel 1944–5 loodi täiendavaid rügemente, moodustades kokku 1. segaõhukorpuse, mis koosnes pommitusdivisjonist, ründedivisjonist, hävitajate diviisist ja segadivisjonist. Pärast sõda naasid nad Poolasse ja sünnitasid Poola Rahvavabariigi õhujõud.

1949–1989 Edit

1949. aastal kohandati transpordilennuk Li-2sb pommitajaks ja 1950. aastal võttis Poola Nõukogude Liidult vastu pommitajad Petlyakov Pe-2 ja Tupolev Tu-2 koos õppepommitajatega USB-1 ja USB-2. 1950. aastal võeti kasutusele hävitaja Yak-17, samuti Iljušini Il-12 transport ja Jak-18 treener. Alates 1951. aastast varustati Poola õhujõud reaktiivhävitajate Yak-23 ja reaktiivlennukitega MiG-15 koos koolitusversiooniga MiG-15 UTI ja hiljem, 1961. aastal, MiG-17-ga.

Lisaks Nõukogude toodetud lennukitele toodeti Poolas alates 1952. aastast litsentsi alusel Nõukogude hävitajaid MiG-15 ja hiljem ka MiG-17 Lim-1, Lim-2 ja hiljem Lim-5. Kodumaine maapealse rünnaku variant Lim-5M töötati välja kui Lim-6bis 1964. aastal. Ainus Poola õhujõudude reaktiivpommitaja oli sel perioodil Iljušin Il-28, alates 1952. aastast. Poola kasutas 1959. aastast vaid väikest arvu MiG-19, alates 1963. aastast MiG-21 kasuks, millest sai tema peamine ülehelikiirusega võitleja. Seda lennukit kasutati paljudes variantides alates MiG-21F-13, läbi MiG-21PF ja MF kuni MiG-21bis. Hiljem sai Poola õhuvägi 37 MiG-23 (1979) ja 12 MiG-29 (1989).

Peamine hävitaja-pommitaja ja maapealne ründelennuk oli pärast 1949. aastat Il-10 (koolitusversioon, UIl-10, mis võeti kasutusele 1951. aastal). Alates 1965. aastast kasutas Poola pommitamiseks ja maapealseks rünnakuks ka märkimisväärset arvu Su-7B-sid, mis asendati 1974. aastal 27 Sukhoi Su-20 ja 1984. aastal 110 Sukhoi Su-22-ga.

Propelleriga juhitavad õppelennukid Junak-2 (kasutusel alates 1952), TS-9 Junak-3 (kasutusel alates 1954) ja PZL TS-8 Bies (alates 1958) asendati hiljem reaktiivlennukiga. kodumaal ehitatud TS-11 Iskra. Mõnda aega kasutati teist Poola reaktiivlennukit PZL I-22 Iryda, kuid jätkuvate probleemide tõttu tagastati kõik masinad muutmiseks PZL-ile ega jätkanud teenindust. Yak-12 kasutati mitmerealise lennukina aastast 1951, An-2 aastast 1955 ja seejärel Wilga-35 P.

Transpordilennukid, mida sel perioodil kasutasid Poola õhujõud, olid: Il-14 (esimest korda kasutusel 1955), Il-18 (esimene kasutusel 1961. aastal), An-12B (esimene kasutusel 1966. aastal), An-26 (esmakordselt kasutusel 1972), Jak-40 (esmakordselt kasutusel 1973) ja Tupolev Tu-154. Poola armee kasutas mitmeid helikoptereid: SM-1 (Mil Mi-1, mis on toodetud litsentsi alusel), mis oli mitmeotstarbeline helikopter, kasutusel alates 1956. aastast, Mil Mi-4, multirool, alates 1958. aastast PLZ SM- 2, multirole, alates 1960. aastast Mil Mi-2 ja Mil Mi-8 (hiljem ka Mil Mi-17), multirole, alates 1968. aastast ja Mil Mi-24, lahingukopter, alates 1976. Samuti Mil Mi-14, amfiibhelikopter ja Mil Mi-6, mida mõlemad kasutati transpordina.

1954. aastal liideti Poola õhujõud õhutõrjejõududega, luues õhu- ja maaõhu kaitsejõud (Wojska Lotnicze ja Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju -WLiOPL OK), sõjaline organisatsioon, mis koosneb nii lendavatest kui ka õhutõrjeüksustest. Aastal 1962 eraldati WLiOPL OK taas oma kaheks algkomponendiks: õhujõud (Wojska Lotnicze) ja riigi õhutõrjejõud (Wojska obrony Powietrznej Kraju).

Praegused toimingud Muuda

Pärast poliitilist murrangut ja Nõukogude Liidu kokkuvarisemist 1991. aastal ning sellest tulenevat sõjalise ärevuse vähenemist kogu Euroopas nägid Poola õhujõudude suurust. 1. juulil 1990 ühendati Poola õhujõud ja õhutõrjejõud uuesti (Wojska Lotnicze ja Obrony Powietrznej - WLiOP või WLOP). Selle väe ründevõime koosnes peamiselt MiG-21-dest, MiG-23-dest, MiG-29-dest, Su-20-dest ja Su-22-dest. Ülejäänud Lim-6bis eemaldati 1990. aastate alguses, millele järgnes peagi ülejäänud Su-20 lennukite väljaviimine. Allesjäänud MiG-23-de arv tühistati 1999. aastaks. Kogu 1990ndate aastate jooksul ei olnud Poola ostnud ühtegi uut lahingulennukit ning tal õnnestus 1995. aastal Tšehhi Vabariigilt ja 2004. aastal Saksamaalt osta vaid täiendavaid MiG-29-sid. lõpetati lõplikult kasutusest 2003. aastal. 2004. aastal olid ainsad WLiOP-ga lennanud lahingulennukid MiG-29 ja Su-22. Alates 2010. aastast vajab Su-22 lennukipark kaasajastamist, et säilitada lahingulennukina mis tahes väärtus ja selle tulevik on ebaselge. [7]

2002. aastal valiti WLiOP-i uueks mitmeotstarbeliseks hävitajaks Ameerika firma Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Block 52+, esimesed tarned toimusid novembris 2006 ja jätkusid rahutaeva programmi raames kuni 2008. aastani. 2011. aasta seisuga on Poola õhujõududel kolm eskaadrit F-16: kaks paiknevad 31. taktikalises lennubaasis Poznańi lähedal ja 10. taktikaline malevkond 32. lennubaasis Łaski lähedal. USA F-16 ostmine ei olnud ilma Euroopa lennundus- ja kosmosetööstusettevõtete ägeda konkurentsita. Müüki jälitasid tuliselt Prantsuse ettevõte Dassault oma Mirage 2000-ga ja Rootsi ettevõte Saab koos JAS 39 Gripeniga. Poola Block 52+ F-16 on varustatud uusimate Pratt ja Whitney F-100-229 järelpõletatavate turboventilaatormootoritega ning avioonika komplekt sisaldab APG-68 (V) 9 maastiku kaardistamise radarisüsteemi ja ALQ-211 (V) 4 elektroonilise sõjapidamise komplekt. Kõik Poola F-16 võivad kanda kaasaegset USA täppismoona, ulatudes JDAM/JSOW-st kuni ekspordisertifikaadiga lubatud õhk-õhk relvade (sealhulgas AIM-120C-5 ja AIM-9X) uusimate hulka.

In the aftermath of the presidential Tu-154 crash in 2010 and later Polish-led investigation, the 36th Special Aviation Regiment, responsible for transporting the President and the Polish Government, was disbanded, while the defense minister resigned. [8] [9] A new unit, the 1st Air Base, replaced the 36th regiment. Between June 2010 and December 2017 most official flights were served by two leased Embraer E-175 operated by the LOT Polish Airlines. [10] On 14 November 2016 the Defense Ministry ordered two Gulfstream G550 VIP planes. [11] On 31 March 2017 a deal with Boeing Company was signed to supply two Boeing Business Jet 2 and one Boeing 737-800 for the head of state and the government transport. [12]

On 27 February 2014 Poland signed a €280 million contract with Alenia Aermacchi for 8 M-346 Master advanced training jets. [13] [14] The first two Masters arrived in Poland accompanied by Team Iskry on November 14, 2016. [15] [16]

On 11 December 2014 Polish officials signed a contract with the United States for the purchase of 70 AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Stand off Missile, for US$250 million. Also contained in the contract are upgrades to the fleet of Polish F-16s to be completed by Lockheed Martin. [17]

On 25 January 2019, the Polish government signed a contract for the procurement of four Black Hawk helicopters, intended to be used by the Polish Special Forces. The helicopters would be manufactured by PZL Mielec in Poland and delivered to the Polish military by December. [18]


After the Armistice

During the armistice of 8 September 1943, the operational Cant.Z.511 prototype was based at the seaplane base of Vigna di Valle on the Bracciano lake. The ground crew sabotaged the slender floats to prevent the aircraft from falling into German hands. The airplane subsequently sank in the lake. It is not clear whether the CANT Z.511 was later recovered and scraped or if it still lays on the lakebed in front of the seaplane base (which today hosts the Air Force Museum).

The second prototype never completed assembly and thus its pieces remained in the CRDA factory in Monfalcone. When the German seized the based, they scrapped the pieces for re-use.


Z.506 Airone

The history of the Z.506 began when CANT ("Cantieri navali Trieste" - "Shipyards in Trieste"), the aviation department of CRdA (Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico - "United Shipyards of the Adriatic") moved from building flying boats to float devices . In 1935, the "postman" Z.505 appeared with three in-line engines "Isotta Fraschini" "Asso" XI RC.15. The letter Z in the designation of the aircraft indicates the authorship of Philippe Zappata, the chief engineer of CANT, who transferred from the French company Bleriot at the invitation of the fascist minister I. Bapbo.

"Five hundred and fifth" was overtaken in construction by the "twin brother", the prototype of the passenger CANT Z.506. At the "Shipyards in Trieste" several pre-production "five hundred and sixths" were laid down at once - an urgent order of the state airline "Ala Littoria" was fulfilled. A prototype with FIAT A.59RC air-cooled engines took to the skies in August 1935, piloted by the famous test pilot M. Stoppani.

Comparative tests of both prototypes with different types of power plants quickly showed that the "505th" develops 368 km / h at an altitude of 2900 m, against 356 km / h at an altitude of 3480 m, issued by the "506". Another advantage of the CANT Z.505A was its large payload, due, again, to a significant superiority in the power of its engines. Indeed, on tests, the "505" took off with a flight weight of up to 12.820 kg, while the "506" was able to lift off the water, having a mass of only 10.500 kg. But this was seen as a temporary advantage, since the power of its power plant exceeded that of a competitor by more than 25%. A much more significant role in choosing the type of power plant was played by "emergency" statistics. Six failures on serial liquid-cooled engines with one fire versus one emergency for air-cooled motors quickly persuaded the developers to install the latter on serial machines, showing that air-cooled "stars" are easier and cheaper to operate, and also noticeably lighter in weight. It should also be remembered that the aircraft was intended for operation over the sea, where the requirements for the reliability of the power plant were significantly higher, since even a successful forced landing did not guarantee a safe completion of the flight for passengers, crew and cargo. As a result, CANT Z.505A remained in the singular.

Although in Europe most of the multi-engine aircraft at this time were already built from duralumin, aircraft designers proposed to build the future aircraft from wood. There were two reasons: firstly, the Italian metallurgical industry could not provide aircraft factories with the required amount of duralumin rolled products, and secondly, the company's technologists had very extensive experience in developing protective compositions that significantly reduced the aggressive effect of salty sea water on wooden products. The company was also very successful in the production of special plywood, which was used for the manufacture of boats and small-tonnage vessels for the navy, and also enjoyed a steady demand in the foreign market.

Structurally, the machine was a two-float three-engine cantilever monoplane of an all-wood construction with a low wing. The exterior cladding, made of high quality tulip plywood, resulted in an excellent exterior finish.

The trapezoidal wing of a three-spar design with elliptical tips is also made entirely of wood with plywood sheathing, some of the ribs had solid walls and divided the wing into a number of watertight compartments. On the trailing edge of the wing there are controllable surfaces: two-section flaps and ailerons, also of an all-wood construction, covered with canvas. Inner flap sections are trimmed, statically and dynamically balanced. In the places where the wing is attached to the fuselage, there are fairly developed fairings.

The fuselage is an elliptical monocoque, it is based on one main spar, according to tradition (the aircraft was still built at the former shipyards) called the keel, and four auxiliary ones. The fuselage has three main bulkheads at the spar attachment points. In the front part of the fuselage, immediately behind the engine compartment, there is a pilot's cabin with dual control, behind it is the cabin of the radio operator and flight mechanic, then the cabin for passengers, premises for mail and luggage, and a toilet. The common floor of the cockpit and passengers is also traditionally called the deck. Under the floor of the cockpit there is mooring equipment, which includes a winch and an anchor. The crew and passengers board the aircraft through an oval door located on the left side behind the wing, from a float on a ladder. The sides of the fuselage have seven rectangular windows on each side.

The horizontal tail is attached to the keel and is equipped with struts and counter-braces and is similar in design to the wing. On the first prototype, the rudder had significant horn compensation, which was quickly abandoned after rebalancing. Vertical and horizontal rudders - wooden, covered with canvas and equipped with trimmers, statically and dynamically balanced.

All-metal single-ribbed floats are made of duralumin and are attached with N-shaped struts to the wing, and a pair of parallel struts with braces - from the inside to the fuselage. Each float is divided into two isolated compartments, the aircraft retains the possibility of a normal landing if one compartment is flooded in each float.

Eight duralumin tanks with a total capacity of 5200 liters are placed in the center section in pairs between the side members and are closed from above with reinforced duralumin panels, on which you can walk without fear of damaging the casing or breaking the tightness of the tank. In the leading edge - tanks for oil, their front surfaces served as radiators.

At the design stage, three nine-cylinder radial air-cooled Piaggio Stella XIRC engines with a rated power of 610 hp were considered as a power plant. and Alfa Romeo variable pitch propellers. However, it soon became clear that their capabilities for such a large car were clearly not enough, and for the first prototype they chose nine-cylinder radial engines "Fiat A59RC" with a capacity of 700 hp, which were licensed "Hornets" of the American company "Pratt & Whitney". which rotated three-blade variable pitch propellers "Hamilton-Standard". Later, the Z.506A was equipped with the 126-series Alfa-Romeo engines. The engines were attached to a steel tube-welded engine mount, which in turn was attached to a wooden wing or fuselage structure at four points.

The tests were successfully completed in April 1936. On 7 July, the first prototype passenger Z.506, I CANT, set eight speed records for seaplanes at various distances. Then the "five hundred and sixth" was transferred to the 750-strong "Alfa-Romeo" 126 RC.34. On November 29 and December 1, CANT was able to improve its global reach by climbing to an altitude of 7800 m with a load of 2 tons and 6920 m with 5 tons on board.

The brilliant data of the Z.506A caught the attention of the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) command. The military saw the makings of a naval bomber and long-range reconnaissance. The Z.506B modification appeared, which differed from the civilian CANTa by the tandem arrangement of the pilots in a higher cockpit and a spacious compartment for bombs, 800-kg torpedoes or additional gas tanks.

The bomb load could consist of a land mine of 800 kg, in overload - from two ammunition of 500 kg and three of 50 kg. Instead of them, up to 16 small bombs of 1.5-2 kg could be suspended. In addition to the "hold", the elegant contours of the vehicle were spoiled by the upper turret of the "Breda" M1 type with a 12.7 mm machine gun, semi-recessed into the fuselage. In the lower aft "nest" was a SAFAT of 7.7 mm caliber.

Unexpectedly, the military version outperformed the civilian Z.506. Combat CANT was shown in Milan at the 2nd National Air Show in October 1937. In November, the prototype was followed by a series of 32 Z.506Bs. In October 39, a new order was received from the Italian Air Force for another 32 float bombers.

"Five hundred and sixths" were produced at the CANT facility in Monfalcone, introducing minor improvements to the Z.506B from series to series. The most advanced XII was distinguished by side mounts of 7.7-mm machine guns "Breda" -SAFAT, upper turret "Caproni-Lanchiani" "Delta" E with 12.7-mm "Scotti", bomb load of 1200 kg. The production of late series CANTs was loaded into an aircraft factory in Finale Ligure. A total of about 360 "five hundred sixths" were built, 38 of them were civilians. But these numbers are not indisputable.

A "polished" Z.506B with three 700-horsepower "Alphas" was intended for the assault on record "heights". With a load of a ton, he "climbed" 10 310 m. In November 37th this CANT exceeded the world record, having flown more than 7013 km from Cadiz to Caravellas in Brazil with an average speed of 265 km / h. The maximum speed is 390 km / h.

The return flight ended in disaster, with three crew members and a passenger killed in the waters of the Atlantic. Only the pilot Stoppani survived, he was picked up by the flying boat "Dornier" of the airline "Lufthansa".

In June 1938, Z.506B aircraft began arriving at the Italian naval bombers. The 35th regiment, based in Brindisi, was the first in "Regia Aeronautics" to re-equip with new CANTs, followed by the 31st in Elmas. Until June 1940, the "five hundred and sixth" were mastered in four of the 13 squadrons of the 85th reconnaissance group. Another 20 reconnaissance squadrons at numerous hydro bases scattered from Lero in the Aegean Sea to Menelao in Libya were preparing to replace flying boats CANT Z.501 with Z.506В.

Four Z.506Bs took part in the Spanish Civil War as part of the Italian Expeditionary Force and the Francoist Air Force. Ramon Franco, brother of the leader of the nationalists, fought in one of the CANTs. The pilot who conquered the Atlantic in 1926 on the Dornier Val under the name Plus Ultra did not return from a sortie.

Many countries are interested in the float CANT, but only Poland made a rather large order. The first and only Z.506B arrived in the Baltic on 28 August 1939. A few days later it was destroyed by German bombers. The Japanese firm "Aishi" bought a license for the float CANT, but it didn't go any further. "Five hundred and sixth" - scouts also acquired Romania. Together with Z.501 they operated in the Black Sea,

Italy, which entered the war, had 25 Stormos, in which by June 10, 1940 there were 664 bomb carriers, among them 48 CANT Z.506 seaplanes. Machines of this type, almost 40, consisted of naval reconnaissance squadrons and various support units.

In the Mediterranean, beginning on June 12, 1940, Italian float bombers launched several attacks on the French naval base in Bizerte. Z.506B went into battle, more often loaded with bombs than torpedoes. July 8-9 - massive raids on British ships off the coast of Malta and a large convoy heading from La Valletta to Alexandria. Eight CANT Z.506B were among the 125 Italian bomb carriers participating in the operation.

Already at the beginning of the war, it became clear that the former advanced in all respects, CANT was already outdated. The last time the "five hundred and sixth" was used in large numbers during the battles in Greece, during the occupation of the islands of Kefalonia and Zante in the spring of 1941. The Z.506B of the 35th regiment was also supported by the airborne assault that captured Corfu. During a short campaign against Yugoslavia, the CANTs bombed targets in Croatia several times.

Although the Z.506B literally lagged behind its modern bombers, it turned out to be slow-moving, its range and excellent seaworthiness were still in value. CANT, which received its own name "Airone" ("Heron"), became a good scout. The Z.506B aircraft almost completely replaced the CANT Z.501 flying boats in the naval auxiliary aviation, which were no longer in service.

In June 1940, reconnaissance squadrons acquired 21 ex-CANT bomber. Their number increased sharply after the disbandment of the 31st regiment and the transformation of the 35th into a land formation. In 41st, up to 60 Airones operated in the interests of the fleet, at the end of 42nd - 64 Z.506B and 43 CANTa of other modifications. Several Z.506Bs were heavily exploited at the Seaplane School at Paula Puntisella and at the Naval Intelligence School at Orbetello.

Even with the entry of Italy into the war, the mobilization of personnel and the fleet of commercial airlines began. Four Z.506As entered the NAL, a division of Ala Littoria, which was taken over by Air Force Command. In 1941, three more were "recruited", and 12 transport CANTs, ordered in January, were under construction. NAL crews cruised without interruption, primarily in the interests of field communications on the most important routes between the headquarters and headquarters: Rome - Benghazi through Syracuse and Tripoli and others. Eight five hundred sixths were shot down.

Of 11 CANTs, auxiliary units were formed on the basis of the 612th and 614th separate squadrons. They were replenished during 1941 with three new "boards". In 42, the "five hundred and sixth" arrived in the 613th squadron, which had previously flown on the S.66 Savoy. The main task of the aforementioned air units was the search and rescue of the crews of downed aircraft and sunken ships.

From June 41 to December 42, CANTs, based in Lido and Brindisi, flew 418 flights and picked up 231 people: 167 Italians, 16 Germans, 37 British and 11 French.

Western historians call the fighting in the Mediterranean a "war without hatred", allegedly here civilized opponents were "mutually polite", respected international norms and the "red cross". But in the Mediterranean, as in other theaters of the most brutal of wars, ambulance and rescue aircraft were destroyed.

In 1942, Z.506S from the Piaggio factory, unarmed, originally intended for search and rescue, were added to the CANTs (former civilians). Their service was reorganized in 1943. 11 squadrons, subordinate to the "Regia Marina" (Italian Navy), were given the link "five hundred and sixth".

Z-506 operated in all sectors of the Mediterranean. In addition to reconnaissance, search and rescue, they were involved in anti-submarine operations, patrolling the coast and escorting convoys. "Five hundred and sixth" suffered significant losses. On the Aegean Sea, the British managed to capture the CANT intact, returning from a mission. The aircraft was subsequently used in Malta.

On the eve of the surrender, the Italian Air Force numbered about 60 Z.506s. After the conclusion of an armistice between the Allies and the Italian command, 28 CANTs remained at the disposal of the government of Marshal Badoglio, 35 were captured by the Germans. In the "Luftwaffe" Z.506 solved secondary tasks. Several Airones were also in the Air Force of the Italian Socialist Republic, organized by Mussolini in the north of the country.

Thanks to the restoration at the SACA plant in Brindisi, the number of CANTs in the Italian forces on the side of the Allies increased to 36. By the end of World War II, about 30 "five hundred sixths" survived, 12 - in flight condition. 20 Z.506Bs, which were overhauled and converted into rescue ones by SIAI - "Marchetti", and five Z.506S served 15 more post-war years.


Cant Z.501 under attack by Beaufighters - History

The plane was prone to flight incidents especially during violent landing caused by the inexperience of the pilot or fatality. The support structure between the wing of the motor would sometimes collapse causing the propeller, which was placed just above the control pedal, to amputate the legs of the pilots. During the course of the war, the Cant.Z 501 was employed in multiple roles, from coastal surveillance to antisubmarine warfare to the discovery of mines. Its employment as rescue plane was limited by the on-board, so usually its task would be limited to the discovery of a shipwrecked and the signaling to the naval units. Nevertheless, it was often the protagonist of very difficult landing in order to recover shipwrecked sailors of downed pilots. The Cant.Z 501 also was employed in the search of obstructions and mines in collaboration with the minesweeper or just shooting at the isolated device from a low altitude causing them to explode. Quite intense was also the support provided the convoys in the attempt of diverting them from mined fields and from the enemy submarines. During one of these actions, in the summer of the 41, a Cant.Z 501 sank the submarine H.M.S. Union, also damaging, in the following weeks, other enemy ships. By the end of the war there had been 454 Cant.Z 501 constructed, only of which 24 remaining. The planes were employed until 1950 and subsequently demolished Cant.Z 506 " Airone" The Cant.Z 506 was a seaplane to two floaters with structure in wood and burlap. The original designed originated in the thirties when this plane was the holder of numerous endurance records. With the advent of the war a military version (Cant.Z 506 B) was developed targeting naval scouting and bombardment as one of the primary roles. It had a crew of five and was armed with three 7.7 millimeter machine-guns and a 12.7 millimeter machine-gun mounted on a dorsal turret.

At the explosion of the hostilities there were 57 Cant.Z 506 assigned to naval bombardment squadrons and 28 assigned to naval reconnaissance. at the same time, the Cant.Z 506 started operating from Sicily as naval rescue compleating, in the first month alone, 67 missions and recovering 25 shipwrecked Italian and English sailors. A similar squadron, based in Lero (Aegean Sea) completed 57 search missions, and recovered 37 people. Meantime, the 506s from the naval bombardment units were distinguishing themselves in numerous attack against the enemy convoys, participating to the encounter of Calabria and the battle of Cape Teulada. These were the last missions as a bomber of the 506 which however modern was slower of other bombers of the same generation and had a small ordnance. It was then decided to merge the groups and to transfer the 506 to Naval Aviation as a reconnaissance aircraft. The crews of the Naval Reconnaissance Groups took off every day sifting the Mediterranean with the longest missions, facing serious sacrifices and much risks their airplane was generous, equipped of excellent nautical qualities, absorbed blows well but it was always terribly exposed to enemy fighters. Losses were high due to the nature of the missions which carried the airplane in solitary missions near fortified naval bases or large naval. At the end of the war of the 315 Cant 506 constructed only 36 remained and were employed until 1959. The only Cant 506 B conserved to the days can be seen at the Museum of the Aeronautics of Vigna di Valle, near Rome (Italy). CMASA RS.14 Was designed in 1937 in order to provide for the specific need of marine reconnaissance. It was planned as a replacement of the Cant.Z501 and was meant to operate side by side with the Cant.Z 506. The RS.14 was a twin-engine seaplane with two floaters with an entirely metallic structure. It was armed with three 7,7mm Breda-Safat machine-guns and a dorsal 12.7 millimeter gun. A development phase and continues failure of the support from the wings to the floaters caused several delays to the actual commissioning. Only between the end of 1941 and the beginning of 1942, the first RS.14 were delivered to the operating units of Augusta and Marsala in Sicily. These airplanes participated to the naval battle of Mid-August and subsequently they were employed for tasks of marine reconnaissance and escort to t convoys. In exceptional cases, the RS.14 carried out rescue missions which were uncharacteristic to the plane due to difficulties in landing in open sea.

Although the RS.14 was an airplane quite different from previous models, it ended up being integrate with the Cant.Z 501 as a convoys escort and with the Cant.Z 506 as a reconnaissance plane. (it was more maneuverable but with lesser range). In the first months of 1943 there were approximately 50 operating RS.14. Many were damaged to evoid falling into in enemy hand during the invasion of the Sicily. The survivors, after the armistice of the September 8, continued flying from their bases in Sardinia until the end of the war. Only 9 RS.14, later demolished in 1950, survived to the war.


CANT Z.506 Airone (Heron)

Autor: Personalikirjanik | Last Edited: 06/27/2018 | Sisu ja koopiawww.MilitaryFactory.com | Järgmine tekst on ainult selle saidi jaoks.

Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico ("CANT") was responsible for the excellent Italian floatplane design that was the CANT Z.506 Airone ("Heron") series of the 1930s. The aircraft emerged from a commercial development which set about rewriting world aviation speed and distance records concerning aircraft of this class. The Z.506 began life as a commercial airliner shuttling persons over Italian Mediterranean routes before being adopted into service with the Italian Navy prior to and during World War 2 as a maritime patrol and bombing/torpedo platform. The aircraft managed an existence in the post-war world as well, her qualities proving useful in the at-sea rescue role.

The CANT Z.506 offered up a very unique design appearance making her one of the more recognizable aircraft of the period. This was primarily due to her tri-motor configuration in which engine nacelles were affixed to both wing leading edges as well as the fuselage nose. The fuselage was well-streamlined from nose to tail, the latter capped by a conventional single-rudder tail unit. The fuselage sat atop a network of reinforced struts which attached it to a pair of long-running floats allowing for sea-based landings and take offs. The design was clean and well thought out for the period, combining a wooden understructure with canvas-and-wood skinning techniques which made it strong, light and cost-effective - only the floatplanes were actually constructed of more expensive metal. First flight was recorded on August 19th, 1935 with the prototype (powered by 3 x Piaggio P.IX radial piston engines of 610 horsepower each) giving rise to the original commercial model designated as the "Z.506A". The aircraft was formally introduced in 1936.

After the prototype proved the design highly sound, the Z.506A was ordered into serial production which begat an initial batch of 38 airframes in 1936. The first operating line of the type became Ala Littoria. The Italian Navy had taken notice of the record-setting aircraft and moved to adopt the tri-motor design in its military guise as the "Z.506B". This version was more-or-less a copy of the civilian-minded A-models though slightly reworked with a deeper fuselage to incorporate an observer's station/bomb bay and raised cockpit for improved outward visibility. Also in this version, the Alfa Romeo 126 series RC.34 radial piston engine of 750 horsepower was adopted for all three powerplant installations (2,250 horsepower combined) giving the airframe considerably more output power than previously designed. Crew accommodations amounted to five personnel. Fixed offensive/defensive armament was a network of machine guns - 1 x 12.7mm Breda-SAFAT heavy machine gun and 3 x 7.7mm Breda-SAFAT medium machine guns at various spots about the fuselage including dorsal and beam positions. The aircraft was cleared to haul up to 2,650lbs of stores (including a single 1,800lb torpedo in lieu of conventional drop bombs).

Initial Italian Navy units to receive the aircraft type became the 31st and 35th Naval Bomber Groups. With its steady powerplants in place, the Z.506B military model went on to raise even more aviation distance and ceiling records for her class including a nonstop jaunt from Cadiz, Spain to Caravelas, Brazil covering 4,362 miles during October of 1937. As the Italian Navy found increased usefulness in the Z.506 design, production was equally increased and ultimately involved Piaggio factories. The Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) also adopted the type.

With its three-engine configuration, the Z.506B exhibited a maximum speed of 220 miles per hour and a range out to 1,200 miles. Her listed service ceiling was 23,000 feet. Dimensionally, the Z.506 aircraft was large with its 63 ft, 1.5 in running length, 24 ft, 5.3in resting height and 86 ft, 11.3 in wingspan. When empty, the airframe displaced at 19,300lbs and 28,000lbs when loaded.

With Italian interest now in the outcome of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), Italy supported the Nationalist movement alongside Nazi Germany and Portugal. This included a commitment of war goods that involved a few of its aircraft types such as the CANT Z.506. While not entirely engulfed in the regional bloodshed that followed, the Z.506 gave a good - though limited - account of itself in the conflict, taking flight to complete several recorded sorties. Its participation in the upcoming World War 2 would involve much more of the Z.506 series however.

World War 2 officially began in September of 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. The Polish Air Force had previously ordered six of the Z.506 aircraft though only one was ever delivered and this example destroyed during the German invasion of Poland. Italy joined on the side of the Axis powers in 1940 and, at this point, approximately 97 Z.506 series aircraft were still available for service through two Italian Navy bomber units. The type was used in anger as a sea-based bomber/torpedo bomber, maritime reconnaissance platform, convoy support aircraft and at-sea rescue platform (the latter under the designation of Z.506S "Soccorso"). As the war progressed, Z.506's became increasingly outclassed by smaller, more nimble intercepting fighter types fielded by the Allies which turned into mounting losses, proving the Z.506 a tactical liability in the direct bombing role. This relegated the series to more support-minded roles throughout the course of the war. Italy, as an Axis power, capitulated in September of 1943 and the war as a whole came to a close in August of 1945. The Z.506 managed to keep an existence through to the end fighting with elements of the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force formed in southern Italy after the Italian Armistice of September. Some examples fell to the retreating Germans (to be operated by the Luftwaffe) in Italy and these were used against their former owners for a time and as made available. At least 70 examples fell to the Allies at the time of the Italian surrender.

After World War 2, remaining Z.506 systems were retained by the Italian Air Force and utilized as at-sea rescue aircraft where their good range, high endurance and floatplane landings could be used to perfection. The aircraft, therefore, managed a Cold War existence up to 1959-1960 when the final Herons were officially removed from service with the Italian Air Force.

Production spanned from 1935 to 1943, yielding 324 examples in all. A dimensionally larger version of the Z.506 was produced by CANT in 1937 for Ala Littoria and existed in three known examples as the Z.509.


31st Bomber Squadron (Ca.133 – Neghelli)
Recon Flight “South” (Ca.133 – Mogadiscio)

Under Upper Adriatic Sea Department control

4th Recon Section (Cant Z-501 – Pola)

Under Ionian & Lower Adriatic Sea Department control

142nd Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Taranto)
145th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Brindisi)
171st Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Brindisi)
3rd Recon Section (Cant Z.501 – Taranto)

Under Upper Tyrrenhian Sea Department control

141st Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – La Spezia-Cadimare)
187th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – La Spezia -Cadimare)
1st Recon Section (Cant Z.501 – La Spezia-Cadimare)

Under Lower Tyrrenhian Sea Department control

182nd Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Nisida)

Under Sardinia Naval Command control

146th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Cagliari-Elmas)
148th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Vigna)
183rd Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Cagliari-Elmas)
188th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Cagliari-Elmas)
199th Recon Flight (Cant Z.506 – Santa Giusta)
5th Recon Section (Cant Z.501 – Olbia)

Note: The Sardinia flights were grouped under the 85th Recon Squadron

Under Sicily Navy Command control

144th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Stagnone)
170th Recon Flight (Cant Z.506bis – Augusta)
184th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Augusta)
186th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Augusta)
189th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Siracusa)

Note: The Sicily flights were grouped under the 83rd Recon Squadron

Under Albania Naval Command control

288th Recon Flight (Cant Z.506bis – Brindisi)

Under Libyan Naval Command control

143rd Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Menelao)

Under Aegean Sea Naval Command control

147th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Leros)
185th Recon Flight (Cant Z.501 – Leros)


Sisu

In 1921, the Cosulich family of Trieste, owners of CNT decided to enter the aviation business. Already active in shipping and shipbuilding, they followed the same pattern by establishing first an air taxi service (SISA, 1921) and then a seaplane workshop at Monfalcone (within the existing shipyard) in 1923. The first successful design was the CANT 6 a three-engine biplane flying-boat bomber built in 1925. SISA trained pilots for the Regia Aeronautica (the Italian Air Force) using CANT 7 and CANT 18 biplanes from 1926 it added airline services, using the CANT 10 and CANT 22 cabin seaplanes. The main designer was Raffaele Conflenti. The workshops survived on license production and prototypes.

In 1930, CNT merged with other shipyards to form the C.R.D.A. (Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico - United Adriatic Shipbuilding), but aircraft continued to use the CANT designation. In 1933, C.R.D.A. was acquired by state conglomerate IRI, and Italo Balbo persuaded Filippo Zappata, then working with Blériot, to become chief designer. In the following nine years, CANT flew 18 new types that garnered 40 world records it also added a landplane factory, test department, and airfield as the workforce grew from 350 to 5,000. The CANT Z.501 (1934) and Z.506 (1935) seaplanes, and the Z.1007 landplane bomber (1937) became the standard Italian types in their categories. Zappata saw wooden airplanes as a temporary necessity, and his new designs were conceived with all-metal construction, including the Z.1018 bomber twin, Z.511 four-engine floatplane airliner, and Z.515 twin floatplane.

Around 1939 Zappata became disillusioned with CANT and started negotiating with Breda, which he joined in 1942 in addition, military requirements fluctuated. The Z.1018 started in wood as "flying mockup", developed as a very different wooden preseries, and metamorphosed into metal for production with bomber, torpedo-bomber, and night-fighter variants. Not surprising, none of these types became operational before the Italian armistice in 1943. The ensuing German occupation and USAAF raids in March–April 1944 stopped all production, and only the shipyard was rebuilt after the war.


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